Tupac Shakur April 1995 Vibe Magazine Interview ” If i get killed i want people to have the real story “

On January, 15, 1995, Awaiting sentencing in the city jail on Rikers Island, Tupac gave an exclusive interview to Kevin Powell for Vibe magazine. In the sit-down, Tupac implicated Biggie, Combs, and Harrell in the ambush, although he was unclear about the motive for such a betrayal. Powell’s interview, which appeared in the April 1995 issue, set the hip-hop world in fire. Combs and Biggie vehemently denied their involvement, but made a decision not to fuel the firestorm with more words.

“People always forget, he was only 25 when he got killed, when he died; you’re still figuring yourself out,” says Powell. “So, I felt that my job as a VIBE magazine journalist, as a reporter, as an interviewer was to at least give him the space to tell his side of the story.

Vibe Magazine April 1995 – Ready To Live

It was a chilly January morning when I made my way to Rikers Island for a conversation with Tupac Shakur, what would be his first words to any journalist since being shot last November 30. After passing through a series of checkpoints and metal detectors, I reached a dingy white conference room in the same building where Tupac was being held on $3 million bail. Within weeks, he’d receive a one-and-a-half- to four-and-a-half-year sentence for a sexual abuse conviction in his New York rape case. Tupac strutted into the room without a limp, in spite of having been recently wounded in the leg-among other places. Dressed in a white Adidas sweatshirt and oversized blue jeans, he seemed more alert than he had been in all our interviews and encounters. He looked me in the eyes as we spoke and smoked one Newport after another. “I’m kinda nervous,” he admitted at one point. After a brush with death and the barrage of rumor and innuendo that followed, Tupac said he’d summoned me because “this is my last interview. If I get killed, I want people to get every drop. I want them to have the real story.”

How do you feel after everything you’ve been through these past few weeks?

Well, the first two days in prison, I had to go through what life is like when you’ve been smoking weed for as long as I have and then you stop. Emotionally, it was like I didn’t know myself. I was sitting in a room, like there was two people in the room, evil and good. That was the hardest part. After that, the weed was out of me. Then every day I started doing, like, a thousand push-ups for myself. I was reading whole books in one day, and writing, and that was putting me in a peace of mind. Then I started seeing my situation and what got me here. Even though I’m innocent of the charge they gave me, I’m not innocent in terms of the way I was acting.

Could you tell me specifically what you mean?

I’m just as guilty for not doing nothing as I am for doing things. Not with this case, but just in my life. I had a job to do and I never showed up. I was so scared of this responsibility that I was running away from it. But I see now that whether I show up for work or not, the evil forces are going to be at me. They’re going to come 100 percent, so if I don’t be 100 percent pure-hearted, I’m going to lose. And that’s why I’m losing. When I got in here, all the prisoners was, like, “Fuck that gangsta rapper.” I’m not a gangsta rapper. I rap about things that happen to me. I got shot five times, you know what I’m saying? People was trying to kill me. It was really real like that. I don’t see myself being special; I just see myself having more responsibilities than the next man. People look to me to do things for them, to have answers. I wasn’t having them because my brain was half dead from smoking so much weed. I’d be in my hotel room, smoking too much, drinking, going to clubs, just being numb. That was being in jail to me. I wasn’t happy at all on the streets. Nobody could say they saw me happy.

When I spoke to you a year ago, you said that if you ended up in jail, your spirit would die. You sound like you’re saying the opposite now.

That was the addict speaking. The addict knew if I went to jail, then it couldn’t live. The addict in Tupac is dead. The excuse maker in Tupac is dead. The vengeful Tupac is dead. The Tupac that would stand by and let dishonorable things happen is dead. God let me live for me to do something extremely extraordinary, and that’s what I have to do. Even if they give me the maximum sentence, that’s still my job.

Can you take us back to that night at Quad Recording Studios in Times Square?

The night of the shooting? Sure. Ron G. is a DJ out here in New York. He’s, like, “Pac, I want you to come to my house and lay this rap down for my tapes.” I said, “All right, I’ll come for free.” So I went to his house-me, Stretch, and a couple other homeboys. After I laid the song, I got a page from this guy Booker, telling me he wanted me to rap on Little Shawn’s record. Now, this guy I was going to charge, because I could see that they was just using me, so I said, “All right, you give me seven G’s and I’ll do the song.” He said, “I’ve got the money. Come.” I stopped off to get some weed, and he paged me again. “Where you at? Why you ain’t coming?” I’m, like, “I’m coming, man, hold on.”

Did you know this guy?

I met him through some rough characters I knew. He was trying to get legitimate and all that, so I thought I was doing him a favor. But when I called him back for directions, he was, like, “I don’t have the money.” I said, “If you don’t have the money, I’m not coming.” He hung up the phone, then called me back: “I’m going to call [Uptown Entertainment CEO] Andre Harrell and make sure you get the money, but I’m going to give you the money out of my pocket.” So I said, “All right, I’m on my way.” As we’re walking up to the building, somebody screamed from up the top of the studio. It was Little Caesar, Biggie’s [the Notorious B.I.G.] sideman. That’s my homeboy. As soon as I saw him, all my concerns about the situation were relaxed.

So you’re saying that going into it…

I felt nervous because this guy knew somebody I had major beef with. I didn’t want to tell the police, but I can tell the world. Nigel had introduced me to Booker. Everybody knew I was short on money. All my shows were getting canceled. All my money from my records was going to lawyers; all the movie money was going to my family. So I was doing this type of stuff, rapping for guys and getting paid.

Who’s this guy Nigel?

I was kicking it with him the whole time I was in New York doing Above the Rim. He came to me. He said, “I’m going to look after you. You don’t need to get in no more trouble.”

Doesn’t Nigel also go by the name of Trevor?

Right. There’s a real Trevor, but Nigel took on both aliases, you understand? So that’s who I was kicking with-I got close to them. I used to dress in baggies and sneakers. They took me shopping; that’s when I bought my Rolex and all my jewels. They made me mature. They introduced me to all these gangsters in Brooklyn. I met Nigel’s family, went to his kid’s birthday party-I trusted him, you know what I’m saying? I even tried to get Nigel in the movie, but he didn’t want to be on film. That bothered me. I don’t know any nigga that didn’t want to be in the movies.

Can we come back to the shooting? Who was with you that night?

I was with my homeboy Stretch, his man Fred, and my sister’s boyfriend, Zayd. Not my bodyguard; I don’t have a bodyguard. We get to the studio, and there’s a dude outside in army fatigues with his hat low on his face. When we walked to the door, he didn’t look up. I’ve never seen a black man not acknowledge me one way or the other, either with jealousy or respect. But this guy just looked to see who I was and turned his face down. It didn’t click because I had just finished smoking chronic. I’m not thinking something will happen to me in the lobby. While we’re waiting to get buzzed in, I saw a dude sitting at a table reading a newspaper. He didn’t look up either.

The Miseducation of Tupac Shakur

These are both black men?

Black men in their thirties. So first I’m, like, These dudes must be security for Biggie, because I could tell they were from Brooklyn from their army fatigues. But then I said, Wait a minute. Even Biggie’s homeboys love me, why don’t they look up? I pressed the elevator button, turned around, and that’s when the dudes came out with the guns-two identical 9 mms. “Don’t nobody move. Everybody on the floor. You know what time it is. Run your shit.” I was, like, What should I do? I’m thinking Stretch is going to fight; he was towering over those niggas. From what I know about the criminal element, if niggas come to rob you, they always hit the big nigga first. But they didn’t touch Stretch; they came straight to me. Everybody dropped to the floor like potatoes, but I just froze up. It wasn’t like I was being brave or nothing; I just could not get on the floor. They started grabbing at me to see if I was strapped. They said, “Take off your jewels,” and I wouldn’t take them off. The light-skinned dude, the one that was standing outside, was on me. Stretch was on the floor, and the dude with the newspaper was holding the gun on him. He was telling the light-skin dude, “Shoot that motherfucker! Fuck it!” Then I got scared, because the dude had the gun to my stomach. All I could think about was piss bags and shit bags. I drew my arm around him to move the gun to my side. He shot and the gun twisted and that’s when I got hit the first time. I felt it in my leg; I didn’t know I got shot in my balls. I dropped to the floor. Everything in my mind said, Pac, pretend you’re dead. It didn’t matter. They started kicking me, hitting me. I never said, “Don’t shoot!” I was quiet as hell. They were snatching my shit off me while I was laying on the floor. I had my eyes closed, but I was shaking, because the situation had me shaking. And then I felt something on the back of my head, something real strong. I thought they stomped me or pistol-whipped me and they were stomping my head against the concrete. I saw white, just white. I didn’t hear nothing, I didn’t feel nothing, and I said, I’m unconscious. But I was conscious. And then I felt it again, and I could hear things now and I could see things and they were bringing me back to consciousness. Then they did it again, and I couldn’t hear nothing. And I couldn’t see nothing; it was just all white. And then they hit me again, and I could hear things and I could see things and I knew I was conscious again.

Did you ever hear them say their names?

No. No. But they knew me, or else they would never check for my gun. It was like they were mad at me. I felt them kicking me and stomping me; they didn’t hit nobody else. It was, like, “Ooh, motherfucker, ooh, aah”-they were kicking hard. So I’m going unconscious, and I’m not feeling no blood on my head or nothing. The only thing I felt was my stomach hurting real bad. My sister’s boyfriend turned me over and said, “Yo, are you all right?” I was, like, “Yes, I’m hit, I’m hit.” And Fred is saying he’s hit, but that was the bullet that went through my leg. So I stood up and I went to the door and-the shit that fucked me up-as soon as I got to the door, I saw a police car sitting there. I was, like, “Uh-oh, the police are coming, and I didn’t even go upstairs yet.” So we jumped in the elevator and went upstairs. I’m limping and everything, but I don’t feel nothing. It’s numb. When we got upstairs, I looked around, and it scared the shit out of me.

Why?

Because Andre Harrell was there, Puffy [Bad Boy Entertainment CEO Sean “Puffy” Combs] was there, Biggie… there was about 40 niggas there. All of them had jewels on. More jewels than me. I saw Booker, and he had this look on his face like he was surprised to see me. Why? I had just beeped the buzzer and said I was coming upstairs. Little Shawn bust out crying. I went, Why is Little Shawn crying, and I got shot? He was crying uncontrollably, like, “Oh my God, Pac, you’ve got to sit down!” I was feeling weird, like, Why do they want to make me sit down?

Because five bullets had passed through your body.

I didn’t know I was shot in the head yet. I didn’t feel nothing. I opened my pants, and I could see the gunpowder and the hole in my Karl Kani drawers. I didn’t want to pull them down to see if my dick was still there. I just saw a hole and went, “Oh shit. Roll me some weed.” I called my girlfriend and I was, like, “Yo, I just got shot. Call my mother and tell her.” Nobody approached me. I noticed that nobody would look at me. Andre Harrell wouldn’t look at me. I had been going to dinner with him the last few days. He had invited me to the set of New York Undercover, telling me he was going to get me a job. Puffy was standing back too. I knew Puffy. He knew how much stuff I had done for Biggie before he came out.

So people did see blood on you?

They started telling me, “Your head! Your head is bleeding.” But I thought it was just a pistol-whip. Then the ambulance came, and the police. First cop I looked up to see was the cop that took the stand against me in the rape charge. He had a half smile on his face, and he could see them looking at my balls. He said, “What’s up, Tupac? How’s it hanging?”

When I got to Bellevue Hospital, the doctor was going, “Oh my God!” I was, like, “What? What?” And I was hearing him tell other doctors, “Look at this. This is gunpowder right here.” He was talking about my head: “This is the entry wound. This is the exit wound.” And when he did that, I could actually feel the holes. I said, “Oh my God. I could feel that.” It was the spots that I was blacking out on. And that’s when I said, “Oh shit. They shot me in my head.” They said, “You don’t know how lucky you are. You got shot five times.” It was, like, weird. I did not want to believe it. I could only remember that first shot, then everything went blank.

At any point did you think you were going to die?

No. I swear to God. Not to sound creepy or nothing-I felt God cared for me from the first time the niggas pulled the gun out. The only thing that hurt me was that Stretch and them all fell to the floor. The bullets didn’t hurt. Nothing hurt until I was recovering. I couldn’t walk, I couldn’t get up, and my hand was fucked up. I was looking on the news and it was lying about me. Tell me about some of the coverage that bothered you. The No. 1 thing that bothered me was that dude that wrote that shit that said I pretended to do it. That I had set it up, it was an act. When I read that, I just started crying like a baby, like a bitch. I could not believe it. It just tore me apart. And then the news was trying to say I had a gun and I had weed on me. Instead of saying I was a victim, they were making it like I did it.

What about all the jokes saying you had lost one of your testicles?

That didn’t really bother me, because I was, like, Shit, I’m going to get the last laugh. Because I’ve got bigger nuts than all these niggas. My doctors are, like, “You can have babies.” They told me that the first night, after I got exploratory surgery: “Nothing’s wrong. It went through the skin and out the skin.” Same thing with my head. Through my skin and out the skin.

Have you had a lot of pain since then?

Yes, I have headaches. I wake up screaming. I’ve been having nightmares, thinking they’re still shooting me. All I see is niggas pulling guns, and I hear the dude saying, “Shoot that motherfucker!” Then I’ll wake up sweaty as hell and I’ll be, like, Damn, I have a headache. The psychiatrist at Bellevue said that’s post-traumatic stress.

Why did you leave Bellevue Hospital?

I left Bellevue the next night. They were helping me, but I felt like a science project. They kept coming in, looking at my dick and shit, and this was not a cool position to be in. I knew my life was in danger. The Fruit of Islam was there, but they didn’t have guns. I knew what type of niggas I was dealing with. So I left Bellevue and went to Metropolitan. They gave me a phone and said, “You’re safe here. Nobody knows you’re here.” But the phone would ring and someone would say, “You ain’t dead yet?” I was, like, Damn! Those motherfuckers don’t have no mercy. So I checked myself out, and my family took me to a safe spot, somebody who really cared about me in New York City.

Why did you go to court the morning after you were shot?

They came to the bed and said, “Pac, you don’t need to go to court.” I was, like, no. I felt like if the jury didn’t see me, they would think I’m doing a show or some shit. Because they were sequestered and didn’t know I got shot. So I knew I had to show up no matter what. I swear to God, the farthest thing from my mind was sympathy. All I could think of was, Stand up and fight for your life like you fight for your life in this hospital. I sat there in a wheelchair, and the judge was not looking me in my eyes. He never looked me in my eyes the whole trial. So the jury came in, and the way everybody was acting, it was like a regular everyday thing. And I was feeling so miracle-ish that I’m living. And then I start feeling they’re going to do what they’re going to do. Then I felt numb; I said, I’ve got to get out of here. When I left, the cameras were all rushing me and bumping into my leg and shit. I was, like, “You motherfuckers are like vultures.” That made me see just the nastiest in the hearts of men. That’s why I was looking like that in the chair when they were wheeling me away. I was trying to promise myself to keep my head up for all my people there. But when I saw all that, it made me put my head down; it just took my spirit.

Can we talk about the rape case at all?

Okay. Nigel and Trevor took me to Nell’s. When we got there, I was immediately impressed, because it was different than any club I’d been in. It wasn’t crowded, there was lots of space, there were beautiful women there. I was meeting Ronnie Lott from the New York Jets and Derrick Coleman from the Nets. They were coming up to me, like, “Pac, we’re proud of you.” I felt so tall that night, because they were people’s heroes and they saying I was their hero. I felt above and beyond, like I was glowing. Somebody introduced me to this girl. And the only thing I noticed about her: She had a big chest. But she was not attractive; she looked dumpy, like. Money came to me and said, “This girl wants to do more than meet you.” I already knew what that meant: She wanted to fuck. I just left them and went to the dance floor by myself. They were playing some Jamaican music, and I’m just grooving. Then this girl came out and started dancing-and the shit that was weird, she didn’t even come to me face-first, she came ass-first. So I’m dancing to this reggae music; you know how sensuous that is. She’s touching my dick, she’s touching my balls, she opened my zipper, she put her hands on me. There’s a little dark part in Nell’s, and I see people over there making out already, so she starts pushing me this way. I know what time it is.

We go over in the corner. She’s touching me. I lift up my shirt while I’m dancing, showing off my tattoos and everything. She starts kissing my stomach, kissing my chest, licking me and shit. She’s going down, and I’m, like, Oh shit. She pulled my dick out; she started sucking my dick on the dance floor. That shit turned me on. I wasn’t thinking, like, This is going to be a rape case. I’m thinking, like, This is going to be a good night. You know what I’m saying? Soon as she finished that-just enough to get me solid, rock-hard-we got off the dance floor. I told Nigel, “I’ve got to get out of here. I’m about to take her to the hotel. I’ll see you all later.” Nigel was, like, “No, no, no. I’m going to take you back.” We drive to the hotel. We go upstairs and have sex, real quick. As soon as I came, that was it. I was tired, I was drunk, I knew I had to get up early in the morning, so I was, like, “What are you going to do? You can spend the night or you can leave.” She left me her number, and everything was cool. Nigel was spending the night in my room all these nights. When he found out she sucked my dick on the floor and we had sex, he and Trevor were livid!

Trevor is a big freak; he was going crazy. All he kept asking me was, “D-d-did you fuck in the ass?” He was listening to every single detail. I thought, This is just some guy shit, it’s all good.

What happened on the night of the alleged rape?

We had a show to do in New Jersey at Club 88. This dude said, “I’ll be there with a limo to pick you up at midnight.” We went shopping, we got dressed up, we were all ready. Nigel was saying, “Why don’t you give her a call?” So we were all sitting in the hotel, drinking. I’m waiting for the show, and Nigel’s, like, “I called her. I mean, she called me, and she’s on her way.” But I wasn’t thinking about her no second time. We were watching TV when the phone rings, and she’s downstairs. Nigel gave Man-man, my manager, some money to pay for the cab, and I was, like, “Let that bitch pay for her own cab.” She came upstairs looking all nice, dressed all provocative and shit, like she was ready for a prom date. So we’re all sitting there talking, and she’s making me uncomfortable, because instead of sitting with Nigel and them, she’s sitting on the arm of my chair. And Nigel and Trevor are looking at her like a chicken, like she’s, like, food. It’s a real uncomfortable situation. So I’m thinking, Okay, I’m going to take her to the room and get a massage. I’m thinking about being with her that night at Nell’s. So we get in the room, I’m laying on my stomach, she’s massaging my back. I turn around. She starts massaging my front. This lasted for about a half an hour. In between, we would stop and kiss each other. I’m thinking she’s about to give me another blow job. But before she could do that, some niggas came in, and I froze up more than she froze up. If she would have said anything, I would have said, “Hold on, let me finish.” But I can’t say nothing, because she’s not saying nothing. How do I look saying, “Hold on”? That would be like I’m making her my girl. So they came and they started touching her ass. They going, “Oooh, she’s got a nice ass.” Nigel isn’t touching her, but I can hear his voice leading it, like, “Put her panties down, put her pantyhose down.” I just got up and walked out the room. When I went to the other suite, Man-man told me that Talibah, my publicist at the time, had been there for a while and was waiting in the bedroom of that suite. I went to see Talibah and we talked about what she had been doing during the day, then I went and laid down on the couch and went to sleep. When I woke up, Nigel was standing over me going, “Pac, Pac,” and all the lights was on in both rooms. The whole mood had changed, you know what I’m saying? I felt like I was drugged. I didn’t know how much time had passed. So when I woke up, it was, like, “You’re going to the police, you’re going to the police.” Nigel walks out the room, comes back with the girl. Her clothes is on; ain’t nothing tore. She just upset, crying hysterically. “Why you let them do this to me?” She’s not making sense. “I came to see you. You let them do this to me.” I’m, like, “I don’t got time for this shit right here. You got to chill out with that shit.

Stop yelling at me and looking at me all crazy.” She said, “This not the last time you’re going to hear from me,” and slammed the door. And Nigel goes, “Don’t worry about it, Pac, don’t worry. I’ll handle it. She just tripping.” I asked him what happened, and he was, like, “Too many niggas.” You know, I ain’t even tripping no more, you know? Niggas start going downstairs, but nobody was coming back upstairs. I’m sitting upstairs smoking weed, like, Where the fuck is everybody at? Then I get a call from Talibah from the lobby saying, “The police is down here.”

And that’s what landed you in jail. But you’re saying that you never did anything?

Never did nothing. Only thing I saw was all three of them in there and that nigga talking about how fat her ass was. I got up, because the nigga sounded sick. I don’t know if she’s with these niggas, or if she’s mad at me for not protecting her. But I know I feel ashamed-because I wanted to be accepted and because I didn’t want no harm done to me-I didn’t say nothing.

How did you feel about women during the trial, and how do you feel about women now?

When the charge first came up, I hated black women. I felt like I put my life on the line. At the time I made “Keep Ya Head Up,” nobody had no songs about black women. I put out “Keep Ya Head Up” from the bottom of my heart. It was real, and they didn’t defend it. I felt like it should have been women all over the country talking about, “Tupac couldn’t have did that.” And people was actually asking me, “Did you do it?” Then, going to trial, I started seeing the black women that was helping me. Now I’ve got a brand-new vision of them, because in here, it’s mostly black female guards. They don’t give me no extra favors, but they treat me with human respect. They’re telling me, “When you get out of here, you gotta change.” They be putting me on the phone with they kids. You know what I’m saying? They just give me love.

What’s going to happen if you have to serve time?

If it happens, I got to serve it like a trooper. Of course, my heart will be broke. I be torn apart, but I have to serve it like a trooper.

I understand you recently completed a new album.

Rapping…I don’t even got the thrill to rap no more. I mean, in here I don’t even remember my lyrics.

But you’re putting out the album, right?

Yeah. It’s called Me Against the World. So that is my truth. That’s my best album yet. And because I already laid it down, I can be free. When you do rap albums, you got to train yourself. You got to constantly be in character. You used to see rappers talking all that hard shit, and then you see them in suits and shit at the American Music Awards. I didn’t want to be that type of nigga. I wanted to keep it real, and that’s what I thought I was doing. But now that shit is dead. That Thug Life shit…;I did it, I put in my work, I laid it down. But now that shit is dead.

What are your plans after prison?

I’m going to team up with Mike Tyson when we get out. Team up with Monster Kody [now known as Sanyika Shakur] from California. I’m going to start an organization called Us First. I’m going to save these young niggas, because nobody else want to save them. Nobody ever came to save me. They just watch what happen to you. That’s why Thug Life to me is dead. If it’s real, then let somebody else represent it, because I’m tired of it. I represented it too much. I was Thug Life. I was the only nigga out there putting my life on the line.

Has anybody else been there for you?

Since I’ve been in here I got about 40 letters. I got little girls sending me money. Everybody telling me that God is with me. People telling me they hate the dudes that shot me, they’re going to pray for me. I did get one letter, this dude telling me he wished I was dead. But then I got people looking out for me, like Jada Pinkett, Jasmine Guy, Treach, Mickey Rourke. My label, Interscope Records, has been extremely supportive. Even Madonna.

Can you talk about your relationship with Madonna and Mickey Rourke?

I was letting people dictate who should be my friends. I felt like because I was this big Black Panther type of nigga, I couldn’t be friends with Madonna. And so I dissed her, even though she showed me nothing but love. I felt bad, because when I went to jail, I called her and she was the only person that was willing to help me. Of that stature. Same thing with Mickey Rourke-he just befriended me. Not like black and white, just like friend to friend. And from now on, it’s not going to be a strictly black thing with me. I even apologized to Quincy Jones for all the stuff I said about him and his wives. I’m apologizing to the Hughes Brothers…but not John Singleton. He’s inspiring me to write screenplays, because I want to be his competition. He fired me from Higher Learning and gave my idea to the next actor.

Do you worry about your safety now?

I don’t have no fear of death. My only fear is coming back reincarnated. I’m not trying to make people think I’m in here faking it, but my whole life is going to be about saving somebody. I got to represent life. If you saying you going to be real, that’s how you be real-be physically fit, be mentally fit. And I want niggas to be educated. You know, I was steering people away from school. You gotta be in school, because through school you can get a job. And if you got a job, then that’s how they can’t do us like this.

Do you think rap music is going to come under more attack, given what’s happened to you?

Oh, definitely. That’s why they’re doing me like this. Because if they can stop me, they can stop 30 more rappers before they even born. But there’s something else I understand now: If we really are saying rap is an art form, then we got to be true to it and be more responsible for our lyrics. If you see everybody dying because of what you saying, it don’t matter that you didn’t make them die, it just matters that you didn’t save them.

You mentioned Marvin Gaye in “Keep Ya Head Up.” A lot of people have compared you to him, in terms of your personal conflicts.

That’s how I feel. I feel close to Marvin Gaye, Vincent van Gogh.

Why van Gogh?

Because nobody appreciated his work until he was dead. Now it’s worth millions. I feel close to him, how tormented he was. Him and Marvin too. That’s how I was out there. I’m in jail now, but I’m free. My mind is free. The only time I have problems is when I sleep.

So you’re grateful to be where you are now?

It’s a gift-straight-up. This is God’s will. And everybody that said I wasn’t nothing…my whole goal is to just make them ashamed that they wrote me off like that. Because I’m 23 years old. And I might just be my mother’s child, but in all reality, I’m everybody’s child. You know what I’m saying? Nobody raised me; I was raised in this society. But I’m not going to use that as an excuse no more. I’m going to pull myself up by my bootstraps, and I’m going to make a change. And my change is going to make a change through the community. And through that, they gonna see what type of person I truly was. Where my heart was. This Thug Life stuff, it was just ignorance. My intentions was always in the right place. I never killed anybody, I never raped anybody, I never committed no crimes that weren’t honorable-that weren’t to defend myself. So that’s what I’m going to show them. I’m going to show people my true intentions, and my true heart. I’m going to show them the man that my mother raised. I’m going to make them all proud.

Interviewer: Kevin Power Vibe Magazine

The Code of Thug Life is Needed Today, Street Politics, Tribalism, Snitching – Haki Shakur

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New Afrikan Refugees “ Contraband of War “ or “ Captured Enemy Property “ Virginia 1862

#InternationalRemembranceDayofVictimsofSlavery

New ( Afrikan ) Refugees ” Contrabands of War “ or “ Captured Enemy Property “ U.S. would no longer return escaped slaves who went to Union lines. As the war progressed and Union troops moved deeper into Virginia, Afrikans began to leave their masters, seeking protection behind Union lines. By 1863, approximately 10,000 former slaves had come to Washington, primarily from Maryland and Virginia. The capital was not only a symbol of Union and freedom, but also an actual border which could be crossed to freedom.

“…the contraband were important to the construction and maintenance of the defense of Washington. Without the contrabands’ numbers and labor, the defenses would not have been as successful as they were.” – Civil engineer Edward Frost

Haki Kweli Shakur X Glasses Malone Descendants of Americans Slaves or Descendants of Nation/Tribes in Afrika

At Fort Monroe in Hampton, Virginia, Union Maj. General Benjamin Butler refused to send three fugitives back into the bonds of slavery. He classified the escaping slaves as contraband of war. This term meant that once the fleeing slaves crossed Union army lines, they were classified as property. All enemy property that fell into Union hands constituted contraband and would not be returned. Because of Butler’s actions, a federal policy was instituted on August 6, 1861 – fugitive slaves were declared to be “contraband of war” if their labor had been used to aid the Confederacy in anyway. If found to be contraband, they were declared free.

I’m not a Descendant of American Slaves – Haki Kweli Shakur

 After arriving in Washington, former slaves worked as laborers on the fortifications. They worked for less money and were often exploited. In August of 1862, workers were paid 40 cents, plus rations, a day for work-often they were not paid at all. By November 1863, it was recommended that a sum of $1.00 per day to contraband was a fair wage. Additionally, it was recommended that records be kept in order to make sure these workers were treated fairly. While the troops did the majority of fort construction, contraband labor made a significant contribution.

The migration of former slaves to the nation’s capital not only increased the city’s population but also increased the burden on its infrastructure. Some of the freed slaves in the Washington, D.C. area built settlements which were the foundations for later African American neighborhoods.

March 22 1816 Igbo-Jamaican Black River Slave Rebellion Plot Discovered King of The Igbos & 1000 Armed Igbo & African Maroons

March 22 1816 Igbo-Jamaican Black River Slave Rebellion Plot Discovered King of The Igbos & 1000 Armed Igbo & African Maroons

The Black River Region of western Jamaica as many as a thousand Igbo & other African Ethnic groups plotted a general insurrection and elected King of Igbo  ( Eboes ) and two captains over 300 hundred Enslaved Africans swore blood oaths to join the rebellion but the plot was discovered! The king of the Igbo ( Eboes ) and of one of the captains were captured and at their trial were perfectly cool and unconcerned and did not even profess to deny the facts with which they were charged! At his execution this king of the Igbo ( Eboes ) in Western Jamaica declared that “ He left enough of his countrymen to prosecute the design in hand, and revenge his death upon the whites! The condemned captain escaped from the jail by burning down the prison door 🚪 but was later recaptured and notably he was found concealed in the hut of a Notorious Obeah Man‼️

Originating primarily from what was known as the Bight of Biafra on the West African coast, Igbo people were taken in relatively high numbers to Jamaica as a result of the Transatlantic Slave Trade, beginning around 1750. The primary ports from which the majority of these enslaved people were taken from were Bonny and Calabar, two port towns that are now in south-eastern Nigeria. The slave ships arriving from Bristol and Liverpool delivered the slaves to British colonies including Jamaica. The bulk of enslaved Igbo people arrived relatively late, between 1790 and 1807, when the British passed the Abolition of the Slave Trade Act which outlawed the slave trade in the British Empire. Jamaica, after Virginia, was the second most common disembarkation point for slave ships arriving from the Bight of Biafra.

Igbo Odinani/Omenala – Haki Kweli Shakur

Igbo people were spread on plantations on the island’s northwestern side, specifically the areas around Montego Bay and St. Ann’s Bay, and consequently, their influence was concentrated there. The region also witnessed a number of revolts that were attributed to people of Igbo origin. Slave owner Matthew Lewis spent time in Jamaica between 1815 and 1817 and studied the way his slaves organised themselves by ethnicity and he noted, for example, that at one time when he “went down to the negro-houses to hear the whole body of Eboes lodge a complaint against one of the book-keepers”.

Igbo slaves were known many a times to have resorted to resistance rather than revolt and maintained “unwritten rules of the plantation” of which the plantation owners were forced to abide by. Igbo culture influenced Jamaican spirituality with the introduction of Obeah folk magic; accounts of “Eboe” slaves being “obeahed” by each other have been documented by plantation owners. However, it is more likely that the word “Obeah” was also used by enslaved Akan people, before Igbos arrived in Jamaica. Other Igbo cultural influences include the Jonkonnu festivals, Igbo words such as “unu”, “una”, idioms, and proverbs in Jamaican patois. In Maroon music were songs derived from specific African ethnic groups, among these were songs called “Ibo” that had a distinct style. Igbo people were hardly reported to have been Maroons.

Enslaved Igbo people were known to have committed mass suicides, not only for rebellion, but in the belief their spirits will return to their motherland. In a publication of a 1791 issue of Massachusetts Magazine, an anti-slavery poem was published called Monimba, which depicted a fictional pregnant enslaved Igbo woman who committed suicide on a slave ship bound for Jamaica. The poem is an example of the stereotype of enslaved Igbo people in the Americas. Igbo slaves were also distinguished physically by a prevalence of “yellowish” skin tones prompting the colloquialisms “red eboe” used to describe people with light skin tones and African features. Enslaved Igbo women were paired with enslaved Coromantee (Akan) men by slave owners so as to subdue the latter due to the belief that Igbo women were bound to their first-born sons’ birthplace.

Archibald Monteith, whose birth name was Aneaso, was an enslaved Igbo man taken to Jamaica after being tricked by an African slave trader. Anaeso wrote a journal about his life, from when he was kidnapped from Igboland to when he became a Christian convert.

After the abolition of slavery in Jamaica in the 1830s, Igbo people also arrived on the island as indentured servants between the years of 1840 and 1864 along with a majority Kongo and “Nago” (Yoruba) people. Since the 19th century most of the population African Jamaicans had assimilated into the wider Jamaican society and have largely dropped ethnic associations with Africa.

The African Presence in The Americas, Igbo Ogam, Igbo Ideograms  – Haki Kweli Shakur

Slave rebellions and uprisings Enslaved Igbo people, along with “Angolas” and “Congoes” were often runaways, liberating themselves from enslavement. In slave runaway advertisements held in Jamaica workhouses in 1803 out of 1046 Africans recorded, 284 were described as “Eboes and Mocoes”, 185 “Congoes”, 259 “Angolas”, 101 “Mandingoes”, 70 Coromantees, 60 “Chamba” of Sierra Leone, 57 “Nagoes and Pawpaws” and 30 “scattering”. 187 were documentined as “unclassified” and 488 were “American born negroes and mulattoes”.

Some notable slave rebellions involving Igbo people include:

The 1815 Igbo conspiracy in Jamaica’s Saint Elizabeth Parish, which involved around 250 enslaved Igbo people, described as one of the revolts that contributed to a climate for abolition. A letter by the Governor of Manchester Parish to Bathurst on April 13, 1816 quoted the leaders of the rebellion on trial as saying “that ‘he had all the Eboes in his hand’, meaning to insinuate that all the Negroes from that Country were under his controul”. The plot was thwarted and several slaves were executed.

The 1816 Black River rebellion plot, was according to Lewis (1834:227—28), carried out by only people of “Eboe” origin. This plot was uncovered on March 22, 1816, by a novelist and absentee planter named Matthew Gregory “Monk” Lewis. Lewis recorded what Hayward (1985) called a proto-Calypso revolutionary hymn, sung by a group of Igbo slaves, led by the “King of the Eboes”.

They sang: Oh me Good friend, Mr. Wilberforce, make we free! God Almighty thank ye! God Almighty thank ye! God Almighty, make we free! Buckra in this country no make we free: What Negro for to do? What Negro for to do? Take force by force! Take force by force!

“Mr. Wilberforce” was in reference to William Wilberforce a British politician who was a leader of the movement to abolish the slave trade. “Buckra” was a term introduced by Igbo and Efik slaves in Jamaica to refer to white slave owners and overseers.

Among Igbo cultural items in Jamaica were the Eboe, or Ibo drums popular throughout all of Jamaican music. Food was also influenced, for example the Igbo word “mba” meaning “yam root” was used to describe a type of yam in Jamaica called “himba”. Igbo and Akan slaves affected drinking culture among the black population in Jamaica, using alcohol in ritual and libation. In Igboland as well as on the Gold Coast, palm wine was used on these occasions and had to be substituted by rum in Jamaica because of the absence of palm wine. Jonkonnu, a parade that is held in many West Indian nations, has been attributed to the Njoku Ji “yam-spirit cult”, Okonko and Ekpe of the Igbo. Several masquerades of the Kalabari and Igbo have similar appearance to those of Jonkonnu masquerades.

Language: Much of Jamaican mannerisms and gestures themselves have a wider African origin, rather than specific Igbo origin. Some examples are non-verbal actions such as “sucking-teeth” known in Igbo as “ima osu” or “imu oso” and “cutting-eye” known in Igbo as “iro anya”, and other non-verbal communications by eye movements.

There are a few Igbo words in Jamaican Patois that resulted when slaves were restricted from speaking their own languages. These Igbo words still exist in Jamaican vernacular, including words such as “unu” meaning “you (plural)”, “di” meaning “to be (in state of)”, which became “de”, and “Okwuru” “Okra” a vegetable.

Some words of Igbo origin are

“akara”, from “àkàrà”, type of food, also from Ewe and Yoruba;

“attoo”, from “átú” meaning “chewing stick”.

Idiom such as, via Gullah “big eye” from Igbo “anya ukwu” meaning “greedy”;

“breechee” from “mbùríchì”, an Nri-Igbo nobleman;

de”, from “dị” [with adverbial] “is” (to be);

“obeah” from “ọbiạ” meaning “doctoring””mysticism”;

“okra from “ọkwurụ”, a vegetable;

“poto-poto” from “opoto-opoto”,

“mkpọtọ-mkpọtọ” meaning “mud” or “muddy”, also from Akan;

“Ibo”,”Eboe”, from “Ị̀gbò”,

“se”, from “sị”, “quote follows”, also from Akan “se” and English “say”;

“soso”, from sọsọ “only”;”

unu” or “una” from “únù” meaning “you (plural)” Proverbs

“Ilu” in Igbo means proverbs, a part of language that is very important to the Igbo. Igbo proverbs crossed the Atlantic along with the masses of enslaved Igbo people. Several translated Igbo proverbs survive in Jamaica today because of the Igbo ancestors. Some of these include:

Igbo: “He who will swallow udala seeds must consider the size of his anus”
Jamaican: “Cow must know ‘ow ‘im bottom stay before ‘im swallow abbe [Twi ‘palm nut’] seed”; “Jonkro must know what ‘im a do before ‘im swallow abbe seed.”

Igbo: “Where are the young suckers that will grow when the old banana tree dies?”
Jamaican “When plantain wan’ dead, it shoot [sends out new suckers].”
Igbo: “A man who makes trouble for other is also making one for himself.”
Jamaican: “When you dig a hole/ditch for one, dig two.”

Igbo: “The fly who has no one to advise it follows the corpse into the ground.”
Jamaican: “Sweet-mout’ fly follow coffin go a hole”; “Idle donkey follow cane-bump [the cart with cane cuttings] go a [animal] pound”; “Idle donkey follow crap-crap [food scraps] till dem go a pound [waste dump].”

Igbo: “The sleep that lasts for one market day to another has become death.”
Jamaican: “Take sleep mark death [Sleep is foreshadowing of death].”

Obeah Igbo Spirituality Traditions in Jamaica

“Obeah” refers to folk magic and sorcery that was derived from West African sources. The W. E. B. Du Bois Institute database supports obeah being traced to the “dibia” or “obia” meaning “doctoring” traditions of the Igbo people. Specialists in “Obia” (also spelled Obea) were known as “Dibia” (doctor, psychic) practiced similarly as the obeah men and women of the Caribbean, like predicting the future and manufacturing charms. In Jamaican mythology, “River Mumma”, a mermaid, is linked to “Oya” of the Yoruba and “Uhamiri/Idemili” of the Igbo.

Among Igbo beliefs in Jamaica was the idea of Africans being able to fly back home to Africa. There were reports by Europeans who visited and lived in Jamaica that Igbo slaves believed they would return to their country after death.

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Alert: Medical Neglect Shaka Shakur Call Virginia Department of Corrections Director Harold Clarke!!!

URGENT Call-in to demand medical attention for Shaka Shakur, New Afrikan long-term political prisoner recently transferred from Indiana to Virginia in order to silence him!

All supporters please make phones calls to Virginia Department of Corrections director Harold Clarke in regards to Shaka Shakur’s Health, Shaka is having health concerns issues and is not receiving the proper treatment. Shaka suffers from Hypertension ( High Blood Pressure ) pinched nerves from a bulging disc in his back. He is having troublesome pains through out his whole body related to several ailments. Shaka Shakur is defined as “ CHRONIC CARE “ recipient meaning he is entitled to regular and thorough medical attention but the staff at Sussex 1 State Prison has not responded to his requests with any Urgency‼️‼️‼️

Directions to follow Please Call ☎️:

VDOC Director Harold Clarke 804-674-3000 press 0 for operator and request Director Clarke you will likely have to leave a message with the secretary:

” Hello I am calling because i am concerned about Shaka Shakur #1996207 Mr. Shakur was transferred from Indiana to Sussex 1 State Prison. Since then he has not received the medical care to which he is entitled as being classified “ CHRONIC CARE “. Mr. Shakur has dangerously High Blood Pressure and is experiencing a variety of concerning symptoms since being transferred. Please see to it that Sussex 1 provides Mr. Shakur with all the care that he requires‼️‼️‼️‼️”

March 8 1655 Virginia Colonial Court Declares John Casor Enslaved for Life but wasn’t the first Enslaved African in North America just on Paper, Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón 1526 Spanish South Carolina, Hernando de Soto Spanish Florida 1539 Expeditions, John Punch 1640 Virginia

Jon Casor wasn’t the first Enslaved African on North American soil just on Paper, 1526 Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón, a wealthy sugar planter brought 100 enslaved Africans to South Carolina ( Spanish colony ) San Miguel de Guadalupe, By mid-July 1526, Ayllón had organized an expedition of 600 settlers and 100 horses to found a colony. He lost one of his three ships in the river that Capt. Quexos had named the Rio Jordan; whether it was the Santee[21] or the Cape Fear River[22] is still debated by scholars.[23] The remainder of the expedition landed in Winyah Bay, near the site of present-day Georgetown, South Carolina, on 29 September (the “Feast of Archangels“). Francisco de Chicora left and escaped into the woods. Ayllón’s party proceeded 40 or 45 leagues, partly overland and partly by boat, visiting the “king” of Duahe en route, according to expedition historian Peter Martyr.

Slavery and rebellion

Together with hundreds of settlers, Ayllón had brought a group of roughly 100 “seasoned”, enslaved Africans and natives from Hispaniola[30] to labor at the mission, to clear ground and erect the buildings. After Ayllón’s death, some of the settlers mutinied against his successor. They mistreated the local Guale people and the enslaved Africans. The natives attacked the settlers and the enslaved Africans rebelled, many of them escaping to take refuge in Guale settlements.[31] This 1526 incident is regarded as the first documented slave rebellion in North America, and the surviving enslaved Africans are considered the first non-native settlers.[4]

1539

  • 30 May 1539: Hernando de Soto, following reports from Cabeza de Vaca, lands on the coast of Florida. Of about 1200 men in his expedition, around 50 were African slaves. After exploring modern Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, and South Carolina, the expedition ended in disaster.

Slavery Timeline 1501-1600

A Chronology of Slavery, Abolition, and Emancipation in the Sixteenth Century


This page contains a detailed timeline of the main historical, literary, and cultural events connected with British slavery, abolition, and emancipation between 1501 and 1600. It also includes references to the most significant events taking place outside of the British zone of influence (in the sixteenth century that was most of the world) as well as key events in the history of European exploration and colonisation.

While there is plenty of detail in this timeline, it is of course impossible to record every event related to slavery in this period. The following selection is thus intended to provide an overview of the topic only. If there is something I have left out that you think should be included, please let me know.

Click on a date in the list below, or scroll down the page, for information. Links are given to pages on this website only. For my sources and for further reading, look at the page Further Reading: Slavery, Abolition, and Emancipation.

1400-1500 | 1501 | 1525 | 1550 | 1575 | 1600 | 1601-1700 | 1701-1800 | 1801-1900 | 1901-2003

1502

  • 1502: Juan de Córdoba of Seville becomes the first merchant we can identify to send an African slave to the New World. Córdoba, like other merchants, is permitted by the Spanish authorities to send only one slave. Others send two or three.

1504

  • 1504: a small group of Africans – probably slaves captured from a Portuguese vessel – are brought to the court of King James IV of Scotland.

1505

  • 1505: first record of sugar cane being grown in the New World, in Santo Domingo (modern Dominican Republic).

1509

  • 1509: Columbus’s son, Diego Cólon, becomes governor of the new Spanish empire in the Carribean. He soon complains that Native American slaves do not work hard enough.

1510

  • 22 January 1510: the start of the systematic transportation of African slaves to the New World: King Ferdinand of Spain authorises a shipment of 50 African slaves to be sent to Santo Domingo.

1513

  • 2 April 1513: Juan Ponce de Leon becomes the first European to reach the coast of what is now the United States of America (modern Florida).

1516

  • 1516: the governor of Cuba, Diego Velázquez, authorises slave-raiding expeditions to Central America. One group of slaves aboard a Spanish caravel rebel and kill the Spanish crew before sailing home – the first successful slave rebellion recorded in the New World.
  • 1516: in his book Utopia, Sir Thomas More argues that his ideal society would have slaves but they would not be ‘non-combatant prisoners-of-war, slaves by birth, or purchases from foreign slave markets.’ Rather, they would be local convicts or ‘condemned criminals from other countries, who are acquired in large numbers, sometimes for a small payment, but usually for nothing.’ (Trans. Paul Turner, Penguin, 1965)

1518

  • 18 August 1518: in a significant escalation of the slave trade, Charles V grants his Flemish courtier Lorenzo de Gorrevod permission to import 4000 African slaves into New Spain. From this point onwards thousands of slaves are sent to the New World each year.

1519

  • 20 September 1519: The circumnavigation expedition of Ferdinand Magellan sets out from San Lucar de Barameda. In December 1520, Magellan discovered the ocean which he named the Pacific. Magellan died in the Philipines, 27 April 1521. Only one of the five ships to set out returned to Spain, on 8 September 1522.

1521

  • 13 August 1521: with the capture of King Cuahutemotzin by Hernan Cortés and the fall of the city of Mexico, the Aztec empire is overthrown and Mexico comes under Spanish Rule.

1522

  • 1522: A major slave rebellion breaks out on the island of Hispaniola. This is the first significant uprising of African slaves. After this, slave resistance becomes widespread and uprisings common.

1524

  • 1524: 300 African slaves taken to Cuba to work in the gold mines.

1526

  • 1526: Hieronymous Seiler and Heinrich Ehinger of Konstanz become the first Germans we know to have become involved in the slave trade.

1527

  • 1527: earliest records of sugar production in Jamaica, later a major sugar producing region of the British Empire. Sugar production is rapidly expanding throughout the Caribbean region at this time – with the mills almost exclusivly worked by African slaves.

1528

  • November 1528: a slave called Esteban (or Estevanico) becomes the first African slave to step foot on what is now the United States of America. He was one of only four survivors of Pánfilo de Narváez’s failed expedition to Florida. He and the other three took eight years to walk to the Spanish colony in Mexico. After their return in 1536, the group’s leader, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, published an account of their journey through modern Texas and Mexico (1542).

1530

  • 1530: Juan de la Barrera, a Seville merchant, begins transporting slaves directly from Africa to the New World (before this, slaves had normally passed through Europe first). His lead is quickly followed by other slave traders.

1532

  • 1532: William Hawkins of Plymouth becomes the first English mariner to visit the coast of West Africa, although he does not take part in slave trading.
  • 22 January 1532: Martim Afonso de Souza founds the first Portuguese colony in Brazil at São Vicente. Sugar production begins almost immediately.
  • 15 November 1532: Francisco Pizaro massacres the Incas at Caxamalca (modern Caxamarca) and captures King Atahuallpa, an event that marks the Spanish conquest of Peru.

1539

  • 30 May 1539: Hernando de Soto, following reports from Cabeza de Vaca, lands on the coast of Florida. Of about 1200 men in his expedition, around 50 were African slaves. After exploring modern Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, and South Carolina, the expedition ended in disaster.

1541

  • September 1541: on his third voyage to Canada, Jacques Cartier establishes the first French colony in the New World at Charlesbourg-Royal, close to modern Québec.

1555

  • 1555: the Portuguese sailor Fernão de Oliveira, in Arte de Guerra no mar(The Art of War at Sea), denounces the slave trade as an ‘evil trade’. The book anticipates many of the arguments made by abolitionists in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
  • 1555: Queen Mary of England, under pressure from the Spanish, forbids English involvement in Guinea.
  • July 1555: a small group of Africans from Shama (modern Ghana) described as slaves are brought to London by John Lok, a London merchant hoping to break into the African trade.
  • 10 November 1555: a group of Norman and Breton sailors, under the command of Nicolas de Villegagnon, found the first French colony in South America. The settlement, close to modern Rio De Janiero in Brazil, is named La France Antarctique.

1556

  • 1556: The Italian city of Genoa tries to prevent trading in slaves – not for any humanitarian reasons – but only in an attempt to reduce the numbers of Africans in the city.
  • 1556: Domingo de Soto, in De justicia et de jure libri X (Ten Books on Justice and Law), argues that it is wrong to keep in slavery any person who was born free.

1562

  • October 1562: John Hawkins of Plymouth becomes the first English sailor that we know about to have obtained African slaves – approximately 300 of them in Sierra Leone – for sale in the West Indies. Hawkins traded the slaves illegally with Spanish colonies, but the trip was profitable and others followed. These contributed to increasing tensions between England and Spain. (As well as initiating the English slave trade, Hawkins also introduced both the potato and tobacco to England.)

1569

  • 1569: a Sevillian Dominican, Tomás de Mercado, publishes Tratos y contratos de mercaderes (Practices and Contracts of Merchants), which attacks the way the slave trade is conducted.

1571

  • 1571: the Parlement of Bordeaux sets all slaves – “blacks and moors” – in the town free, declaring slavery illegal in France.

1573

  • 1573: a Spanish-Mexican lawyer, Bartolemé Frías de Albornoz, publishes Arte de los contratos (The Art of Contracts), which casts doubt on the legality of the slave trade.

1575

  • 20 February 1575: Paulo Dias de Novães founds the Portuguese colony of São Paulo de Luanda on the African mainland (modern Angola). The colony soon became a major slave-trading port supplying the vast Brazilian market.

1577

  • 13 December 1577: Sir Francis Drake sets out from Plymouth on his circumnavigation of the globe. (Returns 26 September 1580)

1579

  • 29 January 1579: with the Union of Utrecht, the northern provinces of the Low Countries unite to create a Calvinist republic free from Spanish rule. The United Provinces (modern Netherlands) soon becomes an important slave-trading nation and an aspiring colonial power.

1580

  • 1580: Following the death of King Henry of Portugal, and a short campaign by the duke of Alva, Spain and Portugal are united under Philip II of Spain. Spain thus becomes the most important colonial power – and the largest participant in the slave trade.

1585

  • 27 July 1585: the first English colony in the New World is established at Roanoke Island (modern North Carolina), organised by Sir Walter Raleigh and governed by Ralph Lane. It was not successful, and the colonists withdrew in June 1586.
  • 16 November 1585: In the first of a series of attacks on Spanish colonial interests, Sir Francis Drake sacks the slave-trading settlement of Santiago in the Cape Verde Islands.

1586

  • 11 January 1586: Sir Francis Drake sacks the Spanish colony of Santo Domingo (modern Dominican republic). He goes on to sack Cartagena (modern Columbia) and St. Augustine (modern Florida). These acts of piracy are among the factors that precipitate war between England and Spain.

1587

  • 23 July 1587: A second English colony is founded at Roanoke Island, again organised by Sir Walter Raleigh. When it is revisted by English ships in August 1590, it has vanished without trace.

1588

  • July-September 1588: the failure of the Spanish Armada (an intended Spanish invasion of England, largely destroyed by bad weather) provides a boost for English maritime power and for English colonial ambitions, although the boost may have been more psychological than actual.

1592

  • 1592: Bernard Ericks becomes the first Dutch slave trader.

1594

  • 1594: L’Espérance of La Rochelle becomes the first French ship positively identified as participating in the slave trade. However, French merchants may have been involved in small scale slave trading since the 1540s.

1595

  • 1595: in a pattern that was to be adhered to for several decades, Philip II of Spain grants Pedro Gomes Reinal, a Portuguese merchant, a near monopoly in the slave trade. Reinal agrees to provide Spanish America with 4250 African slaves annually, with a further 1000 slaves being provided by other merchants.

1596

  • 11 July 1596: Queen Elizabeth I of England sends a letter complaining that ‘there are of late divers blackmoores brought into this realme, of which kinde of people there are allready here to manie … Her Majesty’s pleasure therefore ys that those kinde of people should be sent forth of the lande”. Accordingly, a group of slaves were rounded up and given to a German slave trader, Caspar van Senden, in ‘payment’ for duties he had performed.

1597

  • 1597: Francis Bacon writes On Plantations which becomes an important early text of British colonial discourse.

1600

  • 1600: Pedro Gomes Reinal dies. The Spanish slave-trading monopoly is passed to Jaão Rodrigues Coutinho, Governor of Angola.
  • 1600: King Philip III of Spain outlaws the use of Native American slaves in Spanish colonies.

1400-1500 | 1501 | 1525 | 1550 | 1575 | 1600 | 1601-1700 | 1701-1800 | 1801-1900 | 1901-2003


* This page last updated 24 July 2013 *

Main Slavery Page


Page 2 of 2

This page contains a detailed timeline of some of the main historical, literary, and cultural events connected with British slavery, abolition, and emancipation between 1601 and 1700. It also includes references to the most significant events taking place outside of the British zone of influence. In the early seventeenth century that was most of the world, but British influence grew throughout the century so that, by 1700, we might talk of an informal British Empire.

While there is plenty of detail in this timeline, it is of course impossible to record every event related to slavery in this period. The following selection is thus intended to provide an overview of the topic only. If there is something I have left out that you think should be included, please let me know.

Click on a date in the list below, or scroll down the page, for information. Links are given to pages on this website only. For my sources and for further reading, look at the page Further Reading: Slavery, Abolition, and Emancipation.

1400-1500 | 1501-1600 | 1601 | 1625 | 1650 | 1675 | 1700 | 1701-1800 | 1801-1900 | 1901-2003

1601

  • 1601: The Jesuits build their first sugar mill in Brazil.

1604

  • 1604: Shakespeare’s play Othello: the Moor of Venice first performed. The play features the figure of Othello, an African general, now working for Venice, who has previously suffered enslavement.

1607

  • 14 May 1607: Jamestown, the first permanent British colony in North America, is founded in modern Virginia.

1611

  • November 1611: Shakespeare’s play The Tempest first performed. The play includes the figures of Caliban and Ariel, both enslaved.

1612

  • 1612: The first permanent, although non-official, British colony is founded in Bermuda.

1613

  • 1613: Lorenzo Pignoria publishes De Servis et Eorum apud Veteres Ministeriis, a history of slavery in classical Rome.

1614

  • 23 November 1614: Bermuda colony becomes a Crown possession.

1617

  • 1617: first records of slaves in Bermuda.

1621

  • 3 June 1621: Dutch West India Company chartered and granted a monopoly to trade in the Caribbean. (Dutch slave traders had been operating with varying degrees of success since about 1600.)

1624

  • 28 January 1624: Thomas Warner founds the first British Colony in St Christopher, now normally known as St Kitts.

1625

  • 1625: Foundation of the Danish West India Company.
  • 14 May 1625: Captain John Powell lands on Barbados and claims the island for King James I.

1627

  • 1627: a Spanish-Peruvian Jesuit, Alonso de Sandoval, publishes Naturaleza, Policia, … Costumbres i Ritos, Disciplina, i Catechismo Evangelico de todos Etíopes (The Nature, Policy, … Customs and Rituals, Disciplines, and Gospel Catechism of all Ethiopians), which argues that slavery combines all the world’s evils.
  • 17 February 1627: Henry Powell, John Powell’s brother, along with 80 British settlers and 10 African slaves, found a colony on Barbados at Jamestown (modern Holetown).

1632

  • 1632: Montserrat, originally claimed by Christopher Columbus for Spain in 1493, falls under English control (although there may have been earlier small English settlements).

1635

  • 1635: Foundation of the French Compagnie des Îles de l’Amérique (Company of the Isles of America). The organisation is not a financial success and is restructured in 1642.

1644

  • 25 February 1644: A group of 11 enslaved people in New Amsterdam (modern-day New York) successfully petition the government there in what is the first group manumission in a North American colony.

1647

  • 1647: Foundation of the Swedish African Company.

1651

  • 1651: First written mention of slaves being imported into Montserrat.

1655

  • May 1655: British forces under the control of Admiral Sir William Penn take control of Jamaica.

1657

  • 1657: Richard Ligon publishes A True and Exact Historie of the Island of Barbadoes in London. The book contained one of the first detailed descriptions of a British slave plantation, and gave rise to the story of Inkle and Yarico.
  • 1657: George Fox, the Quaker leader, writes a letter ‘To Friends beyond sea, that have Blacks and Indian Slaves’. This is the first letter written by a Quaker expressing some doubts about slavery in the New World.

1660

  • 1660: The newly restored King Charles II of England charters the ‘Royal Adventurers into Africa’, the first English state-sponsored slave trading company.

1664

  • 1664: The financially troubled French Company of the Isles of America is replaced by the Compagnie des Indes Occidentales (West India Company). This survives for less than ten years.

1671

  • 1671: A group of Quakers, including George Fox and William Edmundson, visit Barbados and appear to have come into conflict with the Barbadian plantocracy for suggesting that slave-owners should treat their slaves with humanity and attempt to convert them to Christianity.

1672

  • 1672: The financially troubled Royal Adventurers into Africa, founded in 1660, is restructured and given a new charter as The Royal African Company. The company remains England’s major slave-trading organisation into the 1730s.

1673

  • 1673: The Puritan Richard Baxter publishes antislavery material in A Christian directory, or, a summ of practical theologie, and cases of conscience (London, 1673).
  • 1673: The financially troubled French West India Company is replaced by the Compagnie du Sénégal (Senegal Company). Under various name changes, this remains the main French slave trading company into the 1720s.

1676

  • 1676: the Quaker George Fox publishes Gospel Family-Order, being a short discourse concerning the Ordering of Families, both of Whites, Blacks and Indians, which urged Quakers in America to treat their slaves humanely. The book, although published in London, appears to have been based on a sermon he delivered in Barbados in 1671.
  • 1676: the Quaker Alice Curwen visits Barbados and, in a letter to the slave-holding Barbadian Friend Martha Tavernor, becomes the first Quaker to unambiguously denounce slavery.

1680

  • 1680: the Anglican Morgan Godwin publishes The Negro’s and Indians advocate, suing for their admission into the Church (London, 1680).

1681

  • 4 March 1681: Pennsylvania Colony, later to become a centre of antislavery thought, was founded by a grant to William Penn by King Charles II.

1682

  • 26 January 1682: Birth of Benjamin Lay in Colchester. Lay would later move to Pennsylvania and become an important antislavery campaigner in the 1730s.

1684

  • 1684: In London, Thomas Tryon publishes two tracts on slavery: ‘The Negro’s Complaint of Their Hard Servitude, and the Cruelties Practised upon Them’ and ‘A Discourse in Way of Dialogue, between an Ethiopean or Negro-Slave and a Christian, That Was His Master in America’. These appeared as parts II and III of Friendly Advice to the Gentlemen-Planters of the East and West Indies (London, 1684).

1688

  • 18 February 1688: The Germantown Protest, sometimes also referred to as The German Mennonite Resolution against Slavery, the first formal protest against slavery to be made in the British American colonies, is delivered in Germantown, Pennsylvania.
  • 1688: Aphra Behn publishes Oroonoko, or, the Royal Slave, the first novel to discuss the rights and wrongs of slavery.

1689

  • 1689: John Locke publishes Two Treatises of Government (London, 1689) which arguably offers a justification for slavery – although few scholars now believe that Locke’s arguments were intended to be applied to the Atlantic slave trade.

1691

  • 1691: Cotton Mather’s biography of John Eliot includes antislavery sentiment: The life and death of the renown’d Mr. John Eliot, who was the first preacher of the Gospel to the Indians in America (Boston?, 1691)

1693

  • 1693: The anonymous An exhortation and caution to Friends concerning buying or keeping of Negroes (New York, 1693) becomes the first printed pamphlet explicitly denouncing slavery and the slave trade. Arising from political controversies in early Pennsylvania, it is directed towards Quakers in Philadelphia.

1696

  • 1696: Thomas Southerne in London publishes his dramatic version of Behn’s Oroonoko, or, the Royal Slave.
  • 23 October 1696: Philadelphia Quakers rule that Friends ‘be Careful not to Encourage the bringing in of any more Negroes, & that such that have Negroes be Careful of them, bring them to Meetings, or have Meetings with them in their Families, & Restrain them from Loose, & Lewd Living.’ This is probably the first institutional attempt to limit slave trading in America.

1698

  • July 1698: Five ships of the Company of Scotland for Trading to Africa set sail from Leith to found a colony in Darien (modern Panama). The venture was a disaster, with the death of most of the colonists.

1400-1500 | 1501-1600 | 1601 | 1625 | 1650 | 1675 | 1700 | 1701-1800 | 1801-1900 | 1901-2003


* This page last updated 24 July 2013 *

Main Slavery Page

 

Virginia Slave Breeding/State We Demand Reparations Now! Human Breeding For Profits – Haki Kweli shakur

 

Petitions sign please‼️ Virginia Slave Breeding/State We Demand Reparations Now! Human Breeding For Profits

https://www.change.org/p/united-states-government-virginia-slave-breeding-state-we-demand-reparations-now-human-breeding-for-profits

Virginia John Punch 1640: In 1640, a black indentured servant named John Punch was sentenced to “servitude for natural life” for running away with two white servants, who were given extended terms of service. Punch’s case was one of the first documented examples of lifelong enslavement, The practice of holding Africans as slaves evolved and preceded laws that codified slavery. Racial hierarchies hardened with the passage of the first slavery laws. Although Maryland and Massachusetts were the first colonies to legalize slavery, it was the Virginia slave code, a series of laws enacted between 1662 and 1705, that became the standard that the other colonies followed. In 1661, slavery was officially acknowledged in Virginia statutory law.

John Casor was legally declared a slave for life on March 8th, 1655, thus becoming the first person ever to receive this treatment.

Indentured servants ( Enslaved Africans )

Britain’s first colony in North America was Virginia. There, the officials of this state offered land for free to those colonist who would bring more colonists to Virginia. Many people were ready to take advantage of this offer, but they couldn’t afford the cost of the trip across the ocean. In order to attract more people, the wealthy colonists of Virginia offered to pay the expenses of the voyage for those who will work for them to repay the debt. The term for people who paid for their journey through labor was ‘indentured servants.‘ Most of these servants learned a trade during the time in which they worked for the debt, and they could earn money through it after the debt was repaid.

One of the first servants to clear his debt was an African named Anthony Johnson who worked from 1619 to 1623 and attained his freedom this way.

Anthony Johnson was from Angola and was one of the first black colonists in America. After gaining his freedom and becoming a “free N*gro,” Johnson soon acquired 250 acres of land and started farming it.

During these four years, he became an accomplished tobacco planter and later employed five indentured servants of his own, one of them being John Casor. For bringing in servants, Johnson was given another 250 acres of land as headrights.

After completing seven years of his service, Casor asked for his freedom, which he was refused by Johnson. But, in the mid-time Johnson was persuaded by his family members to allow John Casor to work for a white colonist named Robert Parker.

Johnson v Parker

Johnson didn’t stick to his decision and chose to take matters to court and demand that John Casor is returned to him for service. County Court of Northampton County, Virginia decided to give the ownership to Johnson on March 8th, 1655 after Johnson claimed that Parker took his “n*gro servant” and that by rights “Thee had ye N*gro for his life.”

Lifelong slave – John Casor

John Casor was returned to Johnson, and as result of this decision, he was the first person ever to be legally declared a slave. Another consequence of this is that Anthony Johnson this way become the first slaveholder in the history of the United States. Casor remained a servant to Johnson for the rest of his life. What Johnson did was a precedent that led to the years of slavery in North America.

Legal implications of the court’s decision were vast, as it set several precedents. It was the first recorded instance of a man being declared slave without committing a crime. John Punch, who was declared indentured servant for life previously has earned his sentence by trying to escape his servitude, and the court found him guilty of breaching the contract. Casor, on the other hand, hasn’t done anything wrong. Several laws were based on his case namely the 1670 act barring “free and baptized n*groes and Indians” from owning Christians, meaning white Europeans. They did, however, retain the right to purchase members of their own race as slaves.

As racism became more prevalent in Virginia, Johnson decided to sell his farm and move to Maryland, where he leased 300 acres for tobacco growing.

After his passing in 1670, Johnson’s 300 acres were passed to white colonists and not to his children. The reason was that as a black man Anthony Johnson was not a citizen of the colony.

By this time, the slave trade was developing into a major business, and slave ships brought more and more African men and women to satisfy the ever-growing need for labor in the colonies. Having other black men as slave owners was considered a bad example that may provoke other slaves to revolt, so in 1699, the Virginia Assembly passed the law expelling all “free N*groes” from the colony, thus declaring that only way for an African to live in Virginia is to be a slave.

 

Source: http://www.brycchancarey.com/slavery/chrono3.htm

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Washitaw Nation Recalling the FBI raid of late Washitaw Nation leader’s home Verdiacee Hampton Goston El Bey

Recalling the FBI raid of late Washitaw Nation leader’s home

matt@franklinsun.com May 2, 2014

When Verdiacee Hampton Goston moved to Franklin Parish in 1997, the then 70-year-old self-proclaimed “empress” of the Washitaw Nation said her sole purpose in life was to lead her people to happiness, and free them of paying taxes.

Three years later a small army of state and federal agents descended on the home she rented ten miles east of Winnsboro on the banks of the Bayou Macon, thus thrusting the eccentric tribal leader into the national spotlight.

After years of fighting for what she claimed was the “heirship” of her people, Goston died at her son’s home in California last week at the age of 87, marking an end to a colorful and turbulent life.

On the morning of March 21, 2000, the self-proclaimed “empress” of the Washitaw de Dugdahmoundyah — a group that claims sovereignty over a 30 million-acre empire in Louisiana and neighboring states — was about to eat breakfast when the doorbell rang.

On her doorstep were armed agents from the FBI, the IRS, the U.S. Customs Service and the State Police. Acting on search warrants, agents seized a variety of documents in connection with an investigation regarding income tax evasion, mail fraud and wire fraud.

The planned raid was a well-kept secret, as then Franklin Parish Sheriff Steve Pylant wasn’t informed of the raid until it was underway.

The Struggle iz For Land PT II – Haki Shakur

In an interview with The Franklin Sun the following day, an angered Goston said she had no idea what the agents were looking for.

“They never said what they wanted,” she said. “They knocked on the door and came in with guns. All the rooms are in shambles. They put dogs all up in the refrigerator looking for drugs and took metal detectors across the yard looking for gold coins. They took my jewelry. Why did they do that? The jewelry didn’t do anything wrong.”

Gotson confirmed agents seized a variety of documents available to people who seek citizenship in the Washitaw Nation. Washitaw passports, marriage licenses, drivers’ licenses and birth certificates were available for purchase by Washitaw citizens. A full membership in the Washitaw Nation cost up to $520 per person at the time of the raid, according to reports.

A frustrated Gotson said the “government of the United States” had went to far by ransacking her home.

“The government is going to have to pay up or get off my land,” she told The Franklin Sun. “That raid was the straw that broke the camels back and I’m fixing to put them off my land.”

The then 73-year-old Goston, a former mayor of Richwood, claimed vast amounts of land in Louisiana, Mississippi and Arkansas was hers by “heirship”.

“My fore-parents were here when everyone else came,” she said. “I am who I say I am. I am an empress.”

Goston claimed the legitimacy of her claims had been recognized by agencies such as World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the United Nations and the State of Louisiana.

The Washitaw Nation claims 100,000 years of history, including mound-building Indians, but has never been recognized as an Indian tribe by the federal government.

When asked about how many members were claiming citizenship in the Washitaw Nation, Goston responded, “They are as many as the stars in the sky.”

In 1999, the Southern Poverty Law Center estimated the group had about 200 hard-core members, noting its popularity among followers of Moorish Science, an older black separatist sect.

To this date, United States courts have held that the Washitaw Nation is “fictional” and that it is not recognized as a sovereign nation.

At the time of the raid, Gotson claimed she had been offered sanctuary by the Mormons, but she had no intention of running away from conflict with the government.

“They offered my shelter in one of their granite mountains,” she said. “But I’m not going anywhere. And there ain’t a damn thing they can do about it.”

“Who do you think these people are?” Gotson continued. “They killed the Branch Dividians in Waco. They shot a woman right out from under her baby at Ruby Ridge. Didn’t they kill Jim Jones and his people? That wasn’t a suicide. They are murderers.”

Fellow tribe members Gregory Campbell and Lucille Liscomb were indicted by a federal grand jury three years later on conspiracy charges and 31 counts of internet fraud each.

Campbell and Liscomb, both from Arizona but at the time residing in Winnsboro, pled guilty to collecting more than $20,000 from internet auctions without delivering any of the promised goods. Reports state they advertised Beanie Babies and computer merchandise on Yahoo.com’s auction service. Instructions told winning bidders to send payments to a U.S. Post Office box in one of six northeast Louisiana towns: Columbia, Fort Necessity, Baskin, Archibald, Mangham and Sterlington.

Return of The Ancient Ones – Verdiacee Hampton Goston El Bey

“They had post office boxes all along the road between Winnsboro and I-20 and over,” said then Assistant U.S. Attorney Robert W. Gillespie Jr.

According to family members, Gotson was cremated last week and her ashes are planned to be dispersed over numerous locations in the future.

During her lifetime, the self-proclaimed “empress” was never charged by the FBI.

 

Source:

http://www.hannapub.com/franklinsun/recalling-the-fbi-raid-of-late-washitaw-nation-leader-s/article_de819b14-d233-11e3-91b9-001a4bcf6878.html

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Look For Me in The Whirlwind Marcus Garvey

Look For Me In The Whirlwind: There is no future for a people who deny their past. My Foreparents, My Grandparents, My Mother, My Father did not suffer and die to give me an education to slight, oppress or discourage my people. Whatsoever education I acquired out of their sacrifice of over 300 years, I shall use for the salvation of the 400 million Black people of the world. And the DAY when I forsake my people; may GOD Almighty say, “there shall be no more life for you”.

I unequivocally rejected the racist assumption of much white American Christianity. Namely that God had created the black man inferior. And that he intended Negroes to be a Servant class, heavers of wood and drawers of water. Well I predicated my view of man on the doctrine of E Margo de E “all men regardless of color are created in the image of GOD”. From this premise come the equality of all men and brotherhood of all men. The Biblical injunction of Acts 17:26 reminds us that He created of one blood all nations of men to dwell on the face of the earth and is most interested in brotherhood than with ones own race. Because if Negroes are created in God’s image, and Negroes are Black then God must IN SOME SENSE be Black.

If the White man has the Idea of a white God let him worship his God as he desires. We have found a new ideal. Because God has No color, and yet it is HUMAN to see everything through ones own spectacles, and since the white people have seen their god thru their white spectacles, we have only now started to see our God thru our own Spectacles. But we believe in the God of Ethiopia, the everlasting God; God the Father, God the Son, God the Holy One, the one God of all the Ages; that is the God of whom we believe but we shall worship HIM thru the spectacles of Ethiopia.

For two hundred and fifty years we have struggled under the burden and rigors of slavery. We were maimed, we were brutalized, we were ravaged in every way. We are men, we have hopes, we have passions, we have feelings, we have desires just like any other race. The cry of race all over the world, of Canada for the Canadians, of America for the Americans, Of England for the English, of France for the French or Germany for the Germans; do they think it unreasonable that we the Blacks of the world should raise our cry Africa for the Africans? The Negro is a MAN; we represent the New Negro. His back is not yet against the wall, we do not want his back against the wall because that would be a peculiar and desperate position. We do not want him there. It is because of this we are asking for a fair compromise. Well the Belgians have control over the Belgian Congo, which they cannot use.

They have not the resources to develop, nor the intelligence. The French have more territory than they can develop, there’s certain parts of Africa in which they cannot live at all. So it is for YOU to come together and give us a United States of Africa. We are not going to be a race without a country. God never intended it and we are not going to disappoint God’s confidence in us as Men. We are Men, human beings, capable of the same acts as any other race. Possessing under fair circumstances the same INTELLIGENCE as any other race. Now Africa’s been sleeping. Not dead, only sleeping. Today Africa is walking around not only on our feet but on our brains. You can enslave us for some 300 years, the bodies of men, you can shackle the hands of men, you can shackle the feet of men, you can imprison the bodies of men, BUT YOU CANNOT SHACKLE OR IMPRISON THE MINDS OF MEN.

The Struggle is For Land PT II – Haki Shakur

Rise up Black Men, and take your stand. Reach up black men and women and pull all nature’s knowledge to you. Turn ye around and make a conquest of everything North and South, East and West. And then we you have wrought well, you will have merited God’s blessing, you will become God’s chosen people and naturally you’ll become leaders of the world. And as you bow down to the white man today, so will others bow down to you and call you a race of masters because of the intelligence of your mind and your achievements. No race has the last word on culture and civilization. They do not know what we’re capable of; they do not know what we’re thinking. They’re thinking in terms of dreadnaughts, battleships, airplanes and submarines. You know what we’re thinking about? That is our own private business.

So give us credit for being able to use our minds. And once people are in concept of themselves; determined to use their minds you do not know to what extent they can go. Liberate the minds of men and ultimately you will liberate the bodies of men. Let up the white race, not for social fellowship but for the common good of God and tell him he should live. What satisfaction can anyone get in being happy and see his brother wallowing in filth, death and disease? How can you be happy living in luxury and your brother is living in disease? Then when you try to help the one out of the disease, there are talks of a disloyalty.
Black men of Carthage, Black men of Ethiopia, of Timbuktu to Alexandria gave the likes of civilization to this world. Ethiopia shall stretch forth her hands unto God and princes shall come out of Egypt. Those classes, nations, races have been quite quiet for over four centuries. Who have merely bore the view in self humiliation, whose forbearance can only be compared to the prophet Job as likewise lifted his bowed head and raised it up at God’s cries, and cried out “I am a man and demand a man’s chance and a man’s treatment in this world.”

As I shall teach the black man, I shall teach the black man to see beauty in his own kind and stop bleaching his skin and otherwise looking like what he’s not. Back in the days of slavery, Race mixture, Race miscegenation all occurred BECAUSE THE AFRICAN WOMAN HAD NO PROTECTION FROM THE SLAVEMASTER. Therefore there is no need today for black people themselves to freely continue a PRACTICE that SMACKS so much of slavery.
Our leaders say the race problem will be solved thru higher education. Thru better education, black and white will come together, that day will never happen until Africa is redeemed. Cause if those who like W.E.B Dubois believe that the race problem will be solved in America thru higher education, they will work between now and eternity and never see the problem solved.

Why Black Governments Haven’t Been Working in Afrika & The Americas – Haki Kweli Shakur

God made man lord of his creation; gave him possession and ownership of the world. And you have been so darned lazy that you’ve allowed the other brother to run away with the whole world. Now he’s bluffing you and telling you that the world belongs to him and that you have no part in it. I don’t have to apologize to anybody for being Black, because God Almighty knew exactly what he was doing when he made me Black. If black people knew their glorious past then they would be MORE inclined to respect themselves. Yes, you’ve heard of Johnny walker red, and black, well he had his adversities but he’s still going strong. Well I intend with your help and God’s grace to continue, cause my work has only just begun. Future generations shall have in their hands the guide by which they shall know the sins of the 20th century. I know, and I know you to believe in time, but we shall wait patiently for 200 years if need be, to face our enemies for our prosperity. When mine enemies are satisfied, in life I shall come back or in death even to serve you as I served before. In life I shall be the same, in death I SHALL BE A TERROR to foes of African liberty.

If death hath power then conquer me to be the real Marcus Garvey I would like to be. If I may come in an earthquake, or a plague, or a pestilence, or if God would have me, then be assured that I shall never desert you and make your enemies triumph over you. Will I not go to hell a million times for you? If I die, my work will only just then begin. For I shall live in a physical or spiritual to see the day of Africa’s Glory.
When I am dead, wrap the mantle of the Red, the Black and the Green around me for in a New Life I shall RISE UP with God’s grace and blessings to lead the millions to the heights of triumph, that you well know. Look for me in the whirlwind or a storm, look for me all around you, for with God’s grace I shall come back with countless millions of Black men and women who have died in America, those who have died in the West Indies and those who have died in Africa to aid You in fight for liberty, freedom and life.
Any leadership that teaches you to depend upon another race is a leadership that will enslave you. Any leadership that teaches you to depend upon another race is a leadership that will enslave you! They gave leadership to our Foreparents and that leadership made them slaves. But we have decided to find a leadership of our own, to make ourselves free men. Our great scholars have advanced thru the colleges, and universities have thrown away the blacken record. Babylon did it. Assyria did it. France under Napoleon did it. Germany under Prince Jon Bismarck did it. England did it. America under George Washington did it.

Africa with 400 million Black People can do it. If you cannot do it, if you are not prepared to do it then you will DIE. You race of cowards, you race of imbeciles, you race of good for-nothings, if you cannot do what other men have done, what other nations have done, what other races have done, THEN YOU HAD BETTER DIE. Can we do it? We can do it? We shall do it. We’ve prayed to God for vision and for leadership and he has given us a Universal vision. A vision that will not limit our possibilities to America, a vision that will not limit our possibilities to the West Indies but a vision that says that there must be a free and redeemed Africa.
Christ the crucified, Christ the despised, we appeal to you to help, for leadership. When you endeavored to carry your burden up the heights of Calvary, when white men spurned you, when white men scorned you, when white men spat upon you, when white men pierced your side and blood and water gushed forth, it was BLACK MAN in the name of Simon the Syrian who took your cross and bore it up the heights of Calvary. Now we are bearing our cross and the burden has been so heavy. Oh yes, the Cause is Grand, the Cause is Glory, surely we shall not turn back. Oh, Sail on! Sail on! Sail on! Oh Mighty Shepherd says Sail on! Sail on, until the Flag of the Red, the Black and the Green is perched upon the hilltops of Africa.

Because the time has come for the Black man to forget his hero worship of other races, and to create and emulate Heroes of his own. We must canonize our own Saints, create our own Martyrs, and elevate to positions of fame and honor black men and women who have made their distinct contributions to our racial history. Sojourner Truth is worthy of the place of Sainthood alongside Joan of Arc; Crispus Attucks and George William Gordon are entitled to the Halo of martyrdom with no less glory than that of the Martyrs of any other race. Toussaint L’Ouverture’s brilliancy as a soldier or a statesman outshine that of any other people: hence, He is entitled to the Highest place as a hero among men.

Africa has created millions, countless millions of black men and women in war and in peace, whose luster and bravery outshine that of any other people. Then why not see good and perfection in ourselves? We must inspire a literature and promulgate a doctrine of our own without any apologies to the powers that be. That right is Ours and God’s. Let sentiments and cross opinions go to the winds. We are entitled to our own opinion and are not obligated to or bound by the opinions of others.

If others laugh at you, return the laughter to them; if they mimic you, return the compliment with equal force. They have no more right to dishonor, discredit you in Manhood than you have in dealing with them. Honor them when they honor you; disrespect and disregard them when they vilely treat you. Their arrogance is but skin deep, an assumption that has no foundation in morals or in law. They have sprung from the same family tree of obscurity as we have. Their history is as rude in its primitiveness as ours; their ancestors were running wild and living in trees of branches like monkeys as ours; they made human sacrifices, ate the flesh of their own dead and wild meat from beasts for centuries even as they have accused us of doing; their cannibalism is more prolonged than ours. When we were embracing the banks of the Nile, they were still drinking blood out of the skulls of their conquered dead. After our civilization had reached the noonday of progress they were still living in holes with bats, rats and other insects and animals. After we had already unfathomed the mystery of the stars and reduced the heavenly constellations to minute and regular calculus they were still backwoodsmen, living in ignorance and in blatant darkness.

The world is indebted to us for the benefits of civilization. They stole our arts and sciences from Africa. Then why should we be ashamed of ourselves? Their modern improvements are but duplicates of a grander civilization that we reflected thousands of years ago, without the advantage of what is buried and still hidden, to be reflected and resurrected by our generation and our posterity. Why should we be discouraged if somebody laughs at us today? Who is to tell what tomorrow will bring forth? Did they not laugh at Christ, Moses, Muhammad? Was there not a Carthage, Greece and Rome? So we see and have changes every day. So pray, work, be steadfast and be not dismayed.

As the Jew is held together by his religion, the white racist by the assumption and the unwritten law of superiority, the Mongolian by the precious tie of blood, likewise the Black Man must unite in one grand racial hierarchy. Our union must know no clime, no nationality. But let us all hold together in every country and every clime, making a Racial Empire upon which “the sun shall never set.” Let no voice but your own speak to you from the depths. Let no influence but your own rouse you in time of peace and time of war. Hear all, but attend only to that which concerns you. Your allegiance shall be to your God, your race, your country. Remember that the Jew in his political and economic urges is always first a Jew; the white man is first a white man under ALL CIRCUMSTANCES. So you can do no less, BE BLACK; BUY BLACK; THINK BLACK AND ALL ELSE WILL TAKE CARE OF ITSELF.
Let NO ONE inoculate you with evil doctrines to suit his own conveniences. “Charity begins at home.” So first to thyself be true and “thou canst not then be false to no man.”

God and Nature first made us first what we are, and out of our own creative Genius we make ourselves what we want to be. Follow always that great law. Let God and the sky be our limit, and eternity our measurement. There is no height to which you cannot climb without the active intelligence of your own mind. Mind creates, and as much as we desire in nature we can have through the creation of our own minds. And today being scientifically the weaker race, you shall treat others only as they treat you; but in your homes and everywhere possible, you must teach the higher development of science to your children; and make sure; and make sure that we have a race of scientists par excellence. For in religion and science lies our only hope to withstand the evil designs of modern materialism. Never forget your God. Remember, that we live, work, and pray for a binding racial hierarchy, whose only natural, spiritual and political limits shall be God and “Africa, at home and abroad.” With God’s dearest blessings, I leave you for a while… ONE LOVE.

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The Malcolm X Project

February 21, 1965: The Assassination and Aftermath.

On Sunday afternoon, February 21, 1965, just before delivering an address at the Audubon Ballroom, Malcolm X/El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz was assassinated before a crowd of hundreds of people, including his pregnant wife Betty Shabazz and three of their four children.

The profound religious and political sojourn of Malcolm X was hardly noticed in the immediate aftermath of his assassination. The New York Times editorialized that Malcolm was “an irresponsible demagogue” and “an extraordinary and twisted man,” who had utilized his “true gifts to evil purpose.” Time magazine declared that the dead leader was “an unashamed demagogue” whose “gospel was hatred.” But others saw Malcolm X more clearly. President Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana sent a telegram of condolence to Malcolm’s widow, saying that “your husband lived a life of dedication for human equality and dignity so that the Afro-American and people of color everywhere may live as man. His work in the cause of freedom will not be in vain …”

The Malcolm X Doctrine – Leave Religion at Home when it’s comes to Our Politcial Socioeconomic Struggle – Haki Kweli Shakur

ADDITIONAL READINGS:
  • Breitman, ed., Malcolm X Speaks, pp. 194-226.
  • Goldman, The Death and Life of Malcolm X, Chapter 29, pp. 256-278; Chapter 48, pp. 359-373; and Afterthoughts, pp. 409-435.
  • Earl Grant, “The Last Days of Malcolm X,” in John Henrik Clarke, ed., Malcolm X: The Man and His Times, pp. 8310px05.
  • Eldridge Cleaver, “Initial Reactions on the Assassination of Malcolm X,” Souls on Ice, pp. 50-61.
  • C. Gerald Fraser, “Seeking Malcolm X,” American Legacy, Vol. 8, no. 3 (Fall 2002), pp. 35-43.
  • Manning Marable, “Malcolm X’s Life After Death,” American Legacy, Vol. 8, no. 3 (Fall 2002), pp. 44-61.
  • Manning Marable, “Selling Malcolm: Black History on the Auction Block,” The Crisis, Vol. 109, no. 5 (September/October 2002), pp. 18-21.
  • Kihiss, “Malcolm X Shot to Death at Rally Here,” New York Times, February 22, 1965, pp. 1, 10.
    download pt 1
    download pt 2
    download pt 3
    download pt 4
  • Montgomery, “Harlem is Quiet as News Spreads,” New York Times, February 22, 1965, p. 11. download
  • Lipsyte, “Other Muslims Fear For Lives,” New York Times, February 22, 1965, p. 10. download
  • Benjamin, “Malcolm X Lived in 2 Worlds, White and Black, Both Bitter,” New York Times, February 22, 1965, p. 10. download
  • Jones, “Malcolm Knew He Was a ‘Marked Man’,” New York Times, February 22, 1965, pp. 1, 11. downloadpt 1 | download pt 2
  • Talese, “Police Save Suspect From the Crowd,” New York Times, February 22, 1965, p. 10. download
  • Lissner, “Malcolm Fought for Top Power in Muslim Movement and Lost,” New York Times, February 22, 1965, p. 11. download
  • “Obituary of Malcolm X,” New York Times, February 22, 1965, p. 20. download
  • “Malcolm X Gunned Down,” Los Angeles Times, February 22, 1965, p. 11.
    download pt 1
    download pt 2
    download pt 3
    download pt 4
  • “Hatred for Whites Obsessed Malcolm X,” Los Angeles Times, February 22, 1965, p. 11. download
  • “Muslim Mosque Burns in Harlem; Blast Reported,” New York Times, February 23, 1965, pp. 1, 20. download pt 1| download pt 2 | download pt 3
  • “China Reds Say Malcolm X Was Slain by ‘Imperialists’,” New York Times, February 25, 1965. download
  • Kihiss, “Hunt for Killers in Malcolm Case ‘On Right Track’,” New York Times, February 25, 1965, pp. 1, 18. download pt 1 | download pt 2 | download pt 3
  • Kenworthy, “Malcolm Called a Martyr Abroad,” New York Times, February 26, 1965, p. 15. download
  • “Cops Fear Muslim ‘War’ Over Malcolm X Slaying,” Pittsburgh Courier, February 27, 1965, p. 1. download pt 1 | download pt 2
  • “Baldwin: Malcolm’s Death is a ‘Setback’,” Amsterdam News, February 27, 1965, p. 20. download
  • “What Harlemites Say About Malcolm X Slaying,” Amsterdam News, February 27, 1965, p. 22. download
  • Hicks, “Another Angle: Malcolm X,” Amsterdam News, February 27, 1965, p. 9. download
  • “Trust Fund for Malcolm X’s Kids,” Amsterdam News, February 27, 1965, p. 1. download
  • “Black Muslim Guard Held in the Murder of Malcolm X,” New York Times, February 27, 1965, pp. 1, 10. download pt 1 | download pt 2
  • Rustin, “On Malcolm X,” New American, February 28, 1965, pp. 1, 8. download
  • Montgomery, “Malcolm Buried as True Moslem Despite the Unorthodox Ritual,” New York Times, February 28, 1965, p. 72. download
  • “30,000 Mourn Malcolm X,” Amsterdam News, March 6, 1965, p. 33. download
  • “Lawyer Says Malcolm Was Poisoned,” Amsterdam News, March 13, 1965, p. 4.
  • “Malcolm X Fund Grows to $5,200,” Amsterdam News, March 13, 1965, p. 4. download
  • “Malcolm X Aide Dead in Boston,” New York Times, March 14, 1965, p. 57. download
  • “Malcolm X’s Sister Takes Over; Says She Fears New Violence,” New York Times, March 16, 1965, p. 33. download
  • Montgomery, “Malcolm X a Harlem Idol on Eve of Murder Trial,” New York Times, December 6, 1965, p. 46. download
  • Richard Turner, Islam in the African-American Experience, pp. 238-241.
  • Interview with Herman Ferguson, “The Price of Freedom,” Souls, Vol. 7, no. 1 (Winter 2005), pp. 84-106. download
  • Steve Clark, ed., Malcolm X: The Final Speeches, pp. 257-266.

Malcolm X The Model Of Transformation ( Owusu Yaki Yakubu ) Haki Kweli Shakur

 

Source:

http://www.columbia.edu/cu/ccbh/mxp/assassination.html

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Richmond Slums after Slavery Report on Housing and Living Conditions in the Neglected Sections of Richmond, Virginia

#RememberThe400 Richmond Slums after Slavery Report on Housing and Living Conditions in the Neglected Sections of Richmond, Virginia: When people say the past has nothing to do with now are truly dyseducated ( diseased educated ) The Confederate White House of The South ( Confederate States ) sits on the hill of Shockoe Valley in the picture below wealthy white elites! Economic Oppression is the Worst Oppression! Just cause there are a few black millionaires & black millionaires means what to the majorly of 42 million black people ( New Afrikans ) in America who live just above the poverty line and below it and still living in Housing Projects and Section 8 communities that’s not being invested in! This creates conditions that are not habitable and atmosphere of not peaceful!

This book puts image and detail to the the 1938 evaluation by Harland Bartholomew which found that “approximately one-third of the city’s 43,000 housing units lacked indoor toilets. Nearly one-half had only cold water, and 2,635 units had no water at all.” The Richmond Housing Authority was founded in 1940, and the next year work began on Gilpin Court.

The K.Kinte Show Make America Pay Reparations – Haki kweli Shakur

https://www.amazon.com/Conditions-Neglected-Sections-Richmond-Virginia/dp/1330147693

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The United States vs Dr. Mutulu Shakur – Chokwe Lumumba

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Plaintiff-vMUTULU SHAKUR Defendant STATE OF NEW YORK) COUNTY OF NEW YORK) SS: SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK) INTRODUCTION #82-CR-3./*-CSH AFFIDAVIT CHOKWE LUMUMBA,

being duly sworn, deposes and says as follows 1. I am an attorney appointed to represent Dr. Mutulu Shakur in the above entitled case. I make this affidavit in support of Dr. Mutulu Shakur’s motion to dismiss the indictment on the grounds that this court lacks jurdisdiction over the defendant and the subject matter of the indictment. 2 Dr. Mutulu Shakur is a New Afrikan Freedom Fighter. He has been a participant in the Black Liberation Movement in America for over twenty years. He was a youth activist who campaigned for black community control of community schools supported black political leader and Revolutionary Action Movement member, Herman Ferguson. He also has been an activist in the struggle for New Afrikan independence for over nineteen (19) years. Dr. Shakur has participated in the New Afrikan independence movement as a political officer of the Republic of New Afrika, and a soldier in the Black Legion of the Republic of New Afrika, from 1968-1970 and the of New Afrikan Sepurity Force of the Provisional Government of the Republic of New Afrika from 1970 thru 1987. Moreover Dr. Mutulu Shakur Afrikan a National intelligence and security component of the New Afrikan Independence movement and Black Liberation Movement called the National Task Force for Cointelpro Litigation and Research. Dr. Shakur directed this organization from 1975 until l?b2. Dr. Shakur is also a revolutionary New Afrikan Nationalist health care professional who has campaigned against the use of drugs (chemical genocide) and various anti-New Afrikan health care practices sponsored, promoted and/or permitted by the United States Federal Government and the governments of the various states and municipalities in the United States, and its North American Empire.

(1) 3. The New Afrikan nation in North America is called the Republic of New Afrika. The nation is a colony of the United States of America, and has been colonized since it’s inception by the United States or its European predecessors. The New Afrikan independence movement is a national liberation struggle being waged for the purpose of freeing the New Afrikan nation from the United States. The movement seeks specifically to liberate the territory of Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, South Carolina and Louisiana. These states comprise the central portion of the southeastern blackbelt in which the New Afrikan nation was born. The New Afrikan independence movement seeks to establish an independent Black state within the boundaries of this territory. This movement moreover claims the right to self-determination for New Afrikans (Blacks in America) on all the land in America (North and South) on which New Afrikans have lived for a long time, developed and fought to defend. Dr. Shakur and the Revolutionary Nationalist forces of the New Afrikan independence movement, moreover, support the struggle for Puerto Rican independence, the struggle for the socialist reunification of Mexico (including it’s Northern territory now colonized by the U.S.A. and held as the Southwest portion of the American empire), the struggle for Native American sovereignty rights, and the struggle for socialist revolution within the white North American nation in the United States.

Mutulu Shakur Night of Resistance Tribute, Utah State University Students Via Christian Settler, Haki Shakur

(2) 4. The charges contained in the present indictment against Dr. Shakur arise from acts of war which are part of and incident to a political conflict, and uprising, and military warfare between the United States government and the American governments on one side, and armed forces of the New Afrikan independence movement and enraged masses in the New Afrikan nation on the other side. As such these charges are not proper subjects of criminal prosecution. (3) 5. Dr. Shakur is charged in the present indictment because of the present long-term activity and membership in the New Afrikan Independence movement as a soldier, an intellegence functionary, a health care worker, and political activist. He is also charged because he is suspected of being a member of an underground New Afrikan Freedom Fighters Unit, which was allegedly responsible for the armed actions which gave rise to the counts in the indictment. Dr. Shakur is therefore improperly charged, and is entitled to the international legal protection afforded prisoners of war, and freedom fighters who are combatting racist political regimes.

HISTORY OF THE NEW AFRIKAN NATION AND ITS STRUGGLE AGAINST U.S. COLONIALISM 6. (a) Afrikans began arriving in what was to become the British colonies in America sometime around 1619. Within 40 years the social practice and the laws of the emerging new European nation here had made it clear that Afrikans, free and slave, were not permitted to join this new white nation; nor were the Afrikans—the majority of whom were slaves—to be allowed to join the Indian nations here in peace and in numbers, largely because of the European policy of hunting down “fugitive” slaves. (b) Thus, law and custom in North America by 1660 had forced the creation of a new Afrikan nation here. That nation was composed of Afrikans with residual sovereignty from many different nations and tribes in Afrika, with white genes injected by the slavemasters, who almost universally left their children with their Afrikan mothers and Afrikan group, and with Indian genes. Colonial laws and the practices of opression by whites facilitated the emergence of a new Afrikan nation in the English colonies one hundred years before the U.S. Declaration of Independence. It was a nation whose inherent sovereignty was drawn from the residual sovereignties of the Afrikan nations and tribes from which the Afrikans in America had come.

It was a nation cemented by the essentially homogenous Afrikan cultural background and the essentially similar interaction of all the Afrikan peoples here with an essentially homogenous oppression. (4) 7. (a) The U.S. has been waging war against New Afrikan (Black) people since the time of the international slave trade in Afrikan people. Although not formally declared, this war has persisted on the soil for over 300 years. The dehumanization and atrocities of slavery and the slave trade were not isolated occurrences but, to the contrary, were mandated by formal laws that were codified and even enshrined with the U.S. Constitution. (b) Article One, Section Nine of the U.S. Constitution expressly guaranteed and sanctioned the warfare which constituted the slave trade in Africans in every state that might desire it, for twenty years. The U.S. war did not stop there, but upheld within its Constitution at Article One, Section Two, Clause Three, the further dehumanization of the Afrikan, by relegating his status to that of 3/5’s of a white man. Finally, the U.S. war against the Afrikans was reaffirmed within it Constitution at Article Four, Section two, Clause three. Known as the fugitive slave provision, this article mandated that no slave, even if he or she had reached a free state, was safe, and it was the duty of U.S. citizens to capture and return them to slavery. (5) 8. (a) Even before the British colonies in America were established, New Afrikans in North America resisted colonization by other European colonies.

Chokwe Lumumba on Brinks Expropriations 1981 Freedom Radio

(b) New Afrikan people have a 400 year history of struggle and resistance to the kidnapping, enslavement, genocide and forced migration and colonization of the New Afrikan nation. Freedom, independence, self-government and self-determination have been objectives sought by Black people ever since Afrikans were brought to this country as slaves. In 1526, when Afrikans were brought to the U.S. by the Spanish, Black people rebelled and sought a way of life that was more rewarding and beneficial. In 1526, captive Afrikans rebelled against the Spaniards in South Carolina and sought help of the Native American, who assisted in driving the Spanish away, making it possible for Afrikans in America to begin the self-governing process. Time and time again afterwards, Black people gave their lives for what was dearest to any human being –freedom and self-determination. (c) In 1619 Afrikans were forcibly brought to this land by the English. Many became Maroons who were runaway slaves who established their own social structure in the woods, mountains, and swamps, armed themselves and created bases from which they could operate and to which other slaves might flee. In Louisiana, a maroon village existed called des Natanapalle, where Afrikans lived, governed themselves and protected themselves from recapture. A similar village of self-governing New Afrikans existed in 1729 in the Blue Ridge Mountains.

Another self-governing group of runaways occupied a fort near St. Augustine, Florida. During the U.S. revolutionary war period, when white people were fighting to gain their freedom, captive Afrikans assisted the British and Americans in hopes of getting freedom. They did not get this opportunity from either of the white groups. Therefore, immediately after the end of the war in 1783, Black people in South Carolina and Georgia fled with arms and established a village of their own where they governed themselves and carried on guerilla warfare against whites for years. During 1786 and 1787, most of these settlements were attacked and destroyed by white militiamen. When attacked, these Black nationalists almost always resisted, and fought with whatever they had until they were killed or seriously wounded. (d) In 1800 between 2000 and 5000 Black people planned a rebellion near the city of Richmond, Virginia. Gabriel Prosser, one of the leaders of this revolutionary movement, and other Black independence seekers planned to capture key points in the city and trigger a general slave revolt throughout Virginia and the rest of the states.

A violent storm and two traitors, however, nipped this insurrection in the bud, but nothing stopped the desire of the Blacks to be free. Two years later, a similar rebellion involving close to 10,000 slaves was uncovered. (e) In 1811, a revolt of slaves in St. Charles and St. John parishes in Louisiana took place. The U.S. army had to be called in to recapture them. Most of the slaves were killed in battle and decapitated, and their heads were hung in different spots near NewOrleans for public view. In Cabarrus County,NorthCarolina, in that same year a group of runaway slaves who had been governing themselves were slaughtered by white troops because they refused to cease their activities. Without a doubt, scarcely a day passed when there was not an insurrection or act inflicted by Black people aimed at achieving their right to freedom and self-determination.

Dr. Mutulu Shakur Dope is Death, Acupuncture History & Solutions to Drug Addiction

Full Document here 👇🏾👇🏾👇🏾

https://documentcloud.adobe.com/link/track?uri=urn%3Aaaid%3Ascds%3AUS%3A5aea2333-0571-476e-9c4b-d6bc3c242577

 

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