State of a Nation 1986 Republic of New Afrika ( RNA )

 


The Republic of New Afrika had a revolutionary idea when it was formed in 1968: The U.S. government would set aside six Southern states for black Americans as a “payback” for slavery.

The RNA went so far as to establish “the first African capital in the northern Western Hemisphere” in Hinds County, Miss., but police and FBI raids on the headquarters left the group in disarray. By 1971, the RNA had been dissolved, or “destabilized” as some members claim.

Today, a reformed and relocated Republic of New Afrika marks the passage of 18 years since its founding with a “humanitarian” plea to President Reagan for the release of RNA members and other “political activists” who were arrested and jailed during those turbulent times.


But instead of issuing communiques from the embattled capital, consecrated El Malik, the group yesterday held a news conference in the new home town of the provisional RNA government: Washington.

It was a curious evolution for this once-feared group, which in some ways seems stuck in a time warp. Didn’t the failure of such small-time creations as “Soul City” prove that the idea of a black nation within America had lost its appeal? And didn’t the campaign of Jesse L. Jackson for president prove that most blacks had bought into the political life of these United States?

Imari Obadele, president of the RNA, remains adamant in his belief that blacks would demand a nation of their own if they knew that international law entitled them to one. “The 14th Amendment, an attempt to bestow citizenship on the Africans, newly freed from slavery, does not stipulate that the Africans had to become Americans,” he said. “It meant they were free — free to choose to return to Africa, stay here and become Americans or stay here and form a separate country. Integrationists like Jesse Jackson would be free to stay and become American.” And what would this new nation be like? The RNA held elections in November 1984, and they offered some insights.


The elections were held on street corners in various cities, with fairly strong showings in Philadelphia, New York, Chicago and here in Washington.

“Because of our limited resources and the lack of access to the media, our efforts were restricted,” said Thomas Stanley, a Washington native who was elected minister of information. “But it was still an open and honest election, and people took it seriously.” Stanley says RNA membership today is between 5,000 and 10,000 people, although the group regards all black Americans as citizens. “We divide them into those who are conscious citizens or those who are unconscious,” Stanley said.

Under the new government, judges were elected and empowered to perform marriages and divorces, and also to issue name-change certificates for those wishing to discard their “slave names” for African names.


A minister of interior was elected to issue passports, among other duties.

Also under the new rules, male citizens of the Republic of New Afrika would be allowed to have more than one wife — “because of the shortage of men,” says President Obadele, who is 55. Says Stanley, “I’d move back to Mississippi in a minute.”

Until that day, the RNA will be operating out of Washington, its traditional rhetoric about the “military viability” and “second-strike capabilities” of their new country significantly toned down in favor of drawing and educating new members. “I like D.C.,” said Obadele, who moved here from Philadelphia soon after his release from prison in 1983, where he had served five years on charges of conspiracy to assault federal officers who raided the Hinds County headquarters. “Washington has a long black nationalist population that is cohesive. I like the unity here.”

With a PhD in political science from Temple University, Obadele no doubt is aware of the uphill battle he faces. But surely he did not miss the irony of establishing a provisional national capital in the District of Columbia, a city that has tried but failed to become a state.

Republic of New Afrika Declaration For Independence Haki Kweli Shakur 

Source Washington Post 1986

https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/local/1986/03/30/state-of-a-nation/5b39b598-1570-40db-9df4-570f21503fad/


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PG-RNA Ministry of Health and Society: Preparing and Fortifying For COVID-19 and Any Other Crisis

Preparing and Fortifying For COVID-19 and Any Other Crisis

The Ministry of Health and Society has previously suggested ways New Afrikans can prepare our bodies and minds for Wellness, no matter what the environmental circumstance. We continue to stress the importance of work, study and training in local units in order to collectively prepare Our homes and families for all levels of warfare that we have been experiencing: and all the different stages of warfare that are coming.
1. It is imperative to strengthen our bodies and immune systems with sunlight, water, fruits, vegetables, seeds, nuts, legumes and all the various types of herbs.
2. Live more natural and within your means.
3. Make sure We have plants in Our homes to improve the air quality in Our house and assist in oxygenating the cells in Our body to prevent dis-ease.
4. Take the initiative to learn how to grow Our own food and sprout Our own food.
With all that is taking place within the world surrounding this Coronavirus, the Ministry of Health & Society within the Provisional Government of the Republic of New Afrika, would like to ease the collective mind-state of our people in regards to this worldwide “crisis”. Preparation on all levels is key : mentally, physically, spiritually, psychologically, socially and emotionally. What should have been taking place within all New Afrikan families in preparation for this “crisis” and anything of the like goes as follows:
Bug-In (Situations where you can’t leave your home)- In case you and your family cannot leave your home, the following basic items should be in your home to sustain the family for approximately 2-3 months or longer.
-water (enough to bath in as well in case water is turned off)
– dry goods(beans, rice, oatmeal, cornmeal, noodles, etc)
-canned goods
-dried herbs (herbal medicines in case of trauma, i.e. cayenne, yarrow, ginger, turmeric, Echinacea, elderberry, etc.)
-houseplants (necessary for adequate oxygen supply)
-candles
-flash lights
-matches
-weapons (guns, knives, bow and arrows, staffs)
-ammunition
-soap
-batteries
-rubbing alcohol
-sanitary products
-peroxide
-first aid kit
-apple cider vinegar
-baking soda
**This list can be modified depending on personal household needs and circumstances.

Bug-out Bag (Situations where you can NOT return to your home)
-Portable food sources (dehydrated food, seeds, MREs, etc)
-A couple bottles of water
-Water purification tablets
-A couple sets of dry clothes
-Shelter (tarp, small tent, bedroll, etc.)
-Cord
-Light source
– Fire Starter
-Fire
-Knife
-Weapon (weapons that don’t make noise are necessary as well)
-Hygiene necessities
**Of course this list can be enhanced depending on personal preferences.

It is extremely important to handle situations like this scientifically instead of reacting with worry, fear, panic, and stress. Stress does nothing but weaken the immune system. We can handle anything as long as we are equipped and prepared. “Preparation is everything.” Preparation eases the mind as well. It is important for us to take this time out to focus on the quality of our health and the security of our homes. Along with the proper water, sunlight, air and food, we should also be taking this time to build strong family units. Many of the institutions and businesses are closed because of this “high risk” situation. Without the extra distractions, this is a good time to really bond with Our families and get some necessary things accomplished that are essential for unity, building and self-determination. The following is a list of activities that can be done while quarantined or on lockdown. Remember, We are at war on all levels, so this is an excellent time to organize and complete those important projects, documents and paperwork that need to be completed.
• Unit Study (Study, working and training[see unit study proposal])
• Start seedlings for a home garden (Look up all the different and creative ways to sprout and grow food)
• Economic planning (Plan for self-determined future)
• Drills and practice of survival strategies
• Board Games especially for children
• New Afrikan and Afrikan-Centered Reading, acting, singing, dancing, martial arts, yoga, meditation activities for the youth
• Watch and analyze African-Centered movies and video as a family
This is also a great time to incorporate more vitamins and minerals into our ”live-it.” The following is a list of foods and herbs that strengthen and maintain a healthy immune system.
Herbs That Strengthen the Immune System:
– Echinacea
– Elderberry
– Tumeric
– Oregano
– Olive Leaf
– Ginger
– Astragalus
Foods That Strengthen the Immune System
Citrus Fruit​​​​​​Wheat Germ
Red Bell Peppers​​​​​Pomegranates
Broccoli​​​​​​Peanut Butter
Garlic ​​​​​​​ Hazelnuts
Ginger ​​​​​​​ Sunflower Seeds
Spinach ​​​​​​ Mushrooms
Almonds​​​​​​ Sweet Potatoes​​
Tumeric​​​​​​ Dark Chocolate
Green Tea​​​​​​ Watermelon
Papaya​​​​​​ Acai Berry
Kiwi ​​​​​​​ Blueberries
Foods with Zinc ​​​​
Baked Beans ​​​​​​Pecans
Raisin Bran ​​​​​​Asparagus
Cashews ​​​​​​Flaxseeds
Chickpeas​​​​​​Shiitake Mushrooms
Tofu ​​​​​​​Avocados
Hemp Seeds ​​​​​​ Chia Seeds
Lentils ​​​​​​​ Black Beans
Oatmeal ​​​​​​ Quinoa
Wild Rice ​​​​​​ Pumpkin Seeds ​​
Green Peas​​​​​​ Lima Beans
Spinach​​​​​​
Food with Omega-3’s
– Walnuts
– Flaxseeds

The Ministry of Health and Society, continues to encourage New Afrikans to conserve food, and water during this time, and Train ourselves to eat and drink moderately as we watch this “Pandemic” run its course. We must remain alert to the times and the methods that are being employed to contain the spread of this virus. In the event that we must evacuate our homes, please make sure you have a plan B.
Bure Ardhi
(Free the Land!)
Ministry of Health & Society
Sah Maat
3/20/2020

100 Years of The U.N.I.A. Black Cross Nurses ( BCN ) & Henrietta Vinton Davis 1920 -2020

01 Aug 1922, Manhattan, New York, New York, USA — Photo shows the Black Cross Nurses in the giant parade through Harlem which today opened the thirty-day annual world convention of the Universal Negro Improvement Association, backing the “Back to Africa movement” and the “Black Star Line” in New York. — Image by © Underwood & Underwood/CORBIS

#WomensHistoryMonth 100 Years of The Flag & Plebiscite for a Black Government ( UNIA – Marcus Garvey ) 100 Years of The Black Cross Nurses ( BCN ) & Henrietta Vinton Davis 1920 – 2020 Nationalism

Black Cross Nurses (officially the Universal African Black Cross Nurses) is an international organization of nurses which was founded in 1920, based upon the model of the Red Cross. The organization was the women’s auxiliary of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League and was established to provide health services and education to people of African descent.

Officially the Universal African Black Cross Nurses; an international organization of nurses which was founded based upon the model of the Red Cross. They were established to provide health services and education to people of African descent. In 1920, Henrietta Vinton Davis established the Black Cross Nurses (BCN) in Philadelphia as an auxiliary of (UNIA). The BCN served as the women’s auxiliary of the UNIA, placing women in a supportive role, while the men’s auxiliary served in a protective role. Marcus Garvey wanted everyone in the UNIA to feel they belonged within the organization, and the BCN served that purpose for women. 



In their beginning the BCN was based on the World War I nurse model of the Red Cross. Local chapters were established with a matron, head nurse, secretary and treasurer to provide health services and hygiene education to black members of the community. Few programs existed which would admit people of African descent into nursing training at the time and many health facilities provided unequal care to black patrons; one of the goals of the organization was addressing these discrepancies. Doctors, nurses and lay practitioners took courses ranging from six months to a year to make sure that standardized care was being given.

In addition, upon graduation from the course, each member was required to purchase and wear their official uniform. All white uniforms including dress, shoes, stockings and a cap adorned with a black cross encircled by a red background with a green center were worn for dress and official functions. Duty uniforms, consisted of a green dress over which was worn an ivory apron accompanied by black shoes and stockings, set the BCN nurses apart from other nurses and united them as symbolically as members. Green was chosen as a representation of growth and renewal.

Criticism of the dress and cape stemmed from a comparison to a nun’s habit, while UNIA men’s uniforms resembled military attire. Additional responsibilities of the BCN included singing in a choir and marching in parades. Choir rehearsals were on Friday. Marching practice was necessary as local chapters participated in parades on holidays such as Memorial Day and the Fourth of July, sometimes carrying the Black Nationalist flag.

Marcus Garvey & UNIA 100 Years of The Red Black and Green Flag & Plebiscite 1920 – 2020 

 

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Mark Cook George Jackson Brigade captured March 12 1976

March 12 1976 in Washington State, George Jackson Brigade member Mark Cook was captured. Co-founder of the Tacoma branch of the Black Panther Party, Cook continued his revolutionary activities after working with the BPP. Cook spent 23 years imprisoned for his actions

The George Jackson Brigade was a revolutionary group based in Seattle, Washington, which was named after George Jackson, a dissident prisoner and Black Panther member shot and killed during an alleged escape attempt at San Quentin Prison in 1971

George Jackson The New Afrikan Guerrilla They Couldn’t Kill 


They were involved in violent acts and claimed to use force to overthrow the United States Government or the government of the State of Washington. The group justified their actions by claiming to further the ends of a revolution of the masses to overthrow the present governmental and international business structures and to establish a system of communism

From March 1975 to December 1977, the Seattle Brigade robbed banks as a way to fund themselves and detonated about 20 pipe bombs—mainly targeting government buildings, electric power facilities, Safeway stores, and companies accused of racism. The group was clear that they wanted to avoid casualties at all cost but they used bombings as a way to provoke terror in the government in order to make a change (they hoped).

The New Afrikan Prison Movement 1971



The main goal of the George Jackson Brigade was to replace the Capitalist government with a more humane government. The George Jackson Brigade stated that any revolution that occurs the ruling class would meet with violence so they must be prepared to use violence themselves. After each attack the carried out, successful or unsuccessful they would send a communique explaining why each place had been attacked. They also used these communiques as a way to communicate with authorities.


Mark Cook

– Organizer of the annual CONvention conference of prison activists.
– Only African American, last to join.
– Took part in a robbery and got away and was able to bust Sherman out of Harborview Hospital where he wounded a King County Deputy.


The downfall of the George Jackson Brigade started in January 23 1976 when they attempted to rob a bank in Tukwila, Washington. Two police officers and one member of the George Jackson Brigade, Bruce Seidel, were killed along with John Sherman and Ed Mead being arrested with John Sherman also being wounded. Then, on March 10 of the same year, Mark Cook rescued John Sherman from police custody; however, he shot a police officer in the stomach in the process. Sherman and Cook both escaped but Cook was captured a few days later and spent the next 25 years in prison. The remaining members retreated to regroup and came back in the Fall of 1977 however in September 1977 Brown was arrested while casing a bank. Then on March 21 of 1978 Sherman, Coupez, and Brown’s now new girlfriend Bertram were arrested in a Tacoma restaurant right before executing another robbery.

Black August Memorial, Black August Resistance Explained

 

The GJB ( George Jackson Brigade )

 

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Separatist Dreamer Gaidi Obadele ( Milton Henry ) Republic of New Africa | New York Times

In the 1960s, the phrase “by any means necessary” became a password of black militancy. But it had as many meanings as there are shades of brown. It was at once an authentic call to self-defense and the slipperiest cliché in the radical grab bag; a gauntlet hurled in exasperated defiance and an open invitation to thuggery. What “means” were truly “necessary” — and to what end?

The question must have kept Milton Henry up nights, simultaneously stoking his righteous anger and testing his Christian forbearance as he desperately sought a way around the awful American dilemma. Like his brothers in the black-power movement and his white neighbors in affluent Bloomfield Hills, Mich., Henry never unwound America’s racial tangle. But he led a remarkable life trying.

Born in Philadelphia in 1919, Henry was raised in a cultured Christian home chock full of professional aspirations for the family’s 12 children. In World War II, Henry was inducted into the elite, all-black Tuskegee Airmen. While stationed in Alabama, he punched a white bus driver who had demanded that Henry use a rear entrance — a decade before Rosa Parks instigated the Montgomery bus boycott. A group of British cadets on Henry’s bus protected him from retaliation, probably saving his life.

After the war, Henry graduated from the historically black Lincoln University and traveled Philadelphia’s black neighborhoods, discouraging young men from enlisting in the segregated armed forces. When a friend arranged to take an admissions exam at Yale Law School, Henry accompanied him and took the test, too. His friend was denied admission; Henry won a scholarship.

After graduation, Henry moved with his wife, Marilyn, and their young daughter to Pontiac, Mich., where in the 1950s Henry won election as a city commissioner, filed (and lost) one of the first school desegregation cases in the North and quickly became a role model for younger blacks.

“I had seen black lawyers before,” says Elbert L. Hatchett, a Pontiac lawyer who told me he was inspired by Henry to attend law school. “It’s just that he’s the first lawyer I ever saw who had the perception, the courage, the command of language — he had it all.


Frustrated by the pace of change, Henry was soon drawn to black nationalism. He met Malcolm X and traveled with him to Cairo to meet African leaders. Henry helped organize the 1963 conference in Detroit at which Malcolm delivered his Message to the Grass Roots. (A lifelong audiophile, Henry recorded and released the speech on his own record label.) He was a pallbearer at Malcolm’s 1965 funeral.

By 1968, Henry and his brother Richard had adopted African names and developed a vaulting plan for racial separation. The Republic of New Africa, a socialist black nation, would be carved out of five Southern states with large black populations. In a move that helped ignite the contemporary reparations movement, the brothers demanded $400 billion in compensation from the U.S. government to descendants of slaves. Their offer to begin negotiations between the two nations received no reply.

Even as he staked his claim to a separatist dreamscape where the color of one’s skin would be no less significant than the content of one’s character, Henry kept his feet planted in the law and in the white-dominated court system in which he continued to represent clients. Then the dream turned violent.


Like the Black Panthers, the R.N.A. featured a cadre of young black men armed with rifles. At a March 1969 R.N.A. meeting at Detroit’s New Bethel Baptist Church, a shootout erupted between the police and R.N.A. militants. Henry wasn’t involved. But a young police officer was killed and another was wounded.

The R.N.A. splintered after the shooting. Henry’s brother, now known as Imari Obadele, led a group to Mississippi to begin acquiring land. (Following another shootout, he went to jail on dubious conspiracy charges.) Henry stayed behind, remaining personally loyal to his brother while distancing himself politically. “He did not want to be involved in the violence,” says Godfrey Dillard, a longtime friend and Detroit lawyer.

Then, on a business trip to Ghana in the early ’70s, Henry had an epiphany. He took a drive in the countryside where, according to an unpublished interview with Henry by Nick Salvatore, author of “Singing in a Strange Land: C. L. Franklin, the Black Church and the Transformation of America,” he happened upon a vestige of colonialism.

“I came upon this old English church,” Henry told Salvatore in 2000, which had “a weather-beaten sign out in front of it with the words of Paul on it: ‘Know ye not but you are not your own. You’ve been born with a price, even the blood of our Lord Jesus Christ.’ ”

Henry returned to the U.S. and enrolled at Ashland Theological Seminary, determined to become a preacher. He continued practicing law (with his reputation for highlighting race when it suited his client’s interests undiminished). But on Sundays, he preached from the pulpit of Christ Presbyterian, a church he founded in Southfield, Mich.

After having helped steer the civil rights movement to the brink of militant separatism, Henry had pulled back from the precipice. He didn’t renounce the separatist path; he simply ceased to travel it, finding other means. He returned to his religious roots unbroken and unbowed, with both his spiritual bearings and political energy intact. His funeral included representatives of the Tuskegee Airmen, an honor guard of the Republic of New Africa and a phalanx of prominent lawyers, judges and clergy. All claimed him.

The Suppressed History of New Africans Fighting For Independence in North America – Haki Kweli Shakur 

Source:


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Exclusive Interview: Father of The Late Tupac Shakur, Dr Mutulu Shakur, Powerful Revolutionary Movement, Huey X & Haki Shakur Purposely Awakened Media

Exclusive Interview: Father of the Late Tupac Shakur, Dr. Mutulu Shakur, Powerful Revolutionary Movement

Can you tell myself and the readers about his upbringing?

Dr. Mutulu Shakur was born August 8, 1950 in Baltimore, Maryland to his legally blind mother. He also has a younger sister. Mutulu, by the age of seven, moved to Jamaica Queens, New York with his mother and sister. He grew up without his biological father which would lead him to become a man at a early age. Part of that stage of growing up he also came into his first confrontation in the struggle of being the man of the house with the state helping his mother in the struggle with the social services system so Mutulu was immersed into the social struggle early in his life. 

Growing up who were his influences and mentors? How did they impact his life?

Mutulu’s influences early in his life being that he didn’t have his biological father in his life was his movement fathers; two great men by the name of Saladin Shakur and Herman Ferguson. Saladin Shakur was the biological father of Lumumba and Zayd Shakur; two great organizers and leaders of the Black Panther party of New York. Saladin was a associate of Malcolm X member of Ram, Muslim Mosque Inc, OAAU, a Muslim Pan Afrikanist in the struggle. Herman Ferguson was also an associate of Malcolm X and a prominent figure of community organizing in Queens. Herman was involved in the early Rochdale Movement which sought to stop a new housing development in Queens, NY. He was a member of Ram, Muslim Mosque Inc, OAAU, Republic of New Afrika. Hee lead the struggle of Ocean Hill Brownsville Secession Movement and community control of NYC public schools. These two men impacted Mutulu’s life tremendously in his teenage years they were his father figures. 

When did brother Mutulu Shakur start getting involved in social activism?

Mutulu starting getting involved in social activism at the early age of 15 from those influences and experiences. Mutulu quickly learned the system did not operate in the best interest of New Afrikan ( Black ) people; he over-stood that we had to control the institutions in our communities to get productive effects in our communities and lives. He followed Herman  Ferguson into the New Afrikan Independence Movement and became a citizen of the  Republic of New Afrika. In the 1960s his work was with RAM & The RNA & Supporting the Black Panther Party. His most important work was from 1970-1982 working at the Lincoln Detox Center & Community Program, He was a Political Educator, Counselor and Doctor of Acupuncture treating withdrawal symptoms and drug addict patients, from 1978-82 Mutulu Co-Founded and also was Co-Director of the Black Acupuncture Advisory Association of North America (BAAANA) and the Harlem Institute of Acupuncture. He would soon be a target of the Cointelpro illegal Counterintelligence Program carried out by the Federal Bureau of Investigation & J Edgar Hoover. 

How did brother Mutulu Shakur become involved with the Black Liberation Army?

In the 1960s The Black Liberation Movement came under attack by cointelpro, FBI, and police for the effective work and community organizing of the movements under BLM, Covert-operations and low intensity warfare was initiated on these Black Liberation Organizations, during that time into 1970s many black panthers, organizers, activists were being targeted and murdered also BAAANA headed by Mutulu became a target in a Rico conspiracy by the late 1970s early 1980s they alleged that the clinic was being maintained by The Black Liberation Army and that The BLA was robbing armored trucks to keep the acupuncture clinic open and financed and other organizations and facilities in the New Afrikan Nation as well. Mutulu became a target and went underground as well as other members of The Black Liberation Army. Mutulu would later be captured in 1986 after years of being underground and being placed on the FBI most wanted list on trumped up RICO charges and accusations by government informants. 

Can you tell us what is the Black Liberation Army? What were the views and purpose of the organization?

The Black Liberation Army was a New Afrikan Clandestine formation formed under the most repressive and brutal reactionary climates of time coming from the state ( Government) this created a desirable underground existence for former Black Panthers and New Afrikan Revolutionary Nationalist to survive the repression and attacks from the U.S. until above ground existence could be possible again. The views of the BLA were simple and 3 fold 1. they were  anti-capitalist, anti-imperialist, anti-racist, and anti-sexist. 2. The necessity strive for the abolishment of these systems and for the institution of Socialistic relationships in which Black people have total and absolute control over their own destiny as a people and Nation. 3. in order to abolish the systems of oppression, we must utilize the science of class struggle, develop this science as it relates to our unique national condition. 

Is brother Mutulu Shakur in any relation the subject of the movie Presidents?

I wouldn’t say Mutulu was in any relation to the movie “Dead Presidents”, even though the movie was claimed to be loosely based on events involving The Black Liberation Army and Bank expropriations.

Does Mutulu Shakur feel happy about his influence and the way Tupac was changing his life trying to make a bigger impact on the culture?

Yes, Dr. Mutulu Shakur is profoundly proud of his influence and positive impact on his son Tupac Shakur and not only him, but all the New Afrikan Black Men lives he has impacted and mentored through out his incarceration inside the prison systems and outside including me, Mutulu is the Mentor of the Black Nation and struggle of our people that positive impact and influence will continue once he’s released our communities need him more then ever. He is extremely happy with what Tupac was able to do in his short 25 years he was here and carrying that baton in this protracted struggle of our people and the culture including HipHop Mutulu misses him dearly.

How many times previously had he been up for parole? What seems to be the determining factor why he doesn’t receive paroled?

Mutulu was eligible for a parole hearing in 1996 2 years later a judge incorrectly ruled that Mutulu was sentenced under new guidelines determining he wasn’t eligible for a parole hearing, 2002 he was giving a 15 year parole hit, Mutulu was projected to be released 2-10-2016 he wasn’t released, he had a statutory interim parole hearing he was denied 4-7-2016, his current release date is 12/15/24, the determining factor of his denial of parole is bias and mainly is  influence he will have on our people & communities, at this point we are seeking a compassionate release because he was diagnosed with bone marrow cancer Mutulu is 69 years old and has done 33 years in prison we fear for his survival and life in those prison conditions we want the purposely awakened following to get behind this mission and support Dr Mutulu Shakur at this time a man who has sacrificed so much for our people. He also has another date this spring, please learn about Dr Mutulu Shakur and his struggle and service to our people and help support Mutulu at this time thank you Straight Ahead!

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Acupuncture & The Opioid Crisis of Today , Aba Dr. Mutulu Shakur

The opioid crisis is a hot topic this year, and a recent article in The Atlantic magazine mentions Dr. Mutulu Shakur as one of the figures who brought acupuncture treatment into the mainstream particularly as a method of detoxification from drug use. In addition to inaccurately stating the reason for Dr. Shakur’s incarceration and despite conducting an 11-question written interview, the article did not feature any of his own words. In an effort to add to what little accurate information is publicly available about the highly influential Lincoln Detox program, we are posting Dr. Shakur’s full response to the questions raised by The Atlantic interview.

1. How did you first become involved with Lincoln Detox? Who did you know who already worked there? Why did you decide to apply for a job, and why do you think they opted to hire you?

Early on I had a direct relationship with Felipe Luciano, who was part of the leadership of the Young Lord’s Party and a member of the Last Poets group who went on to become a famous news personality in New York. They performed to support the political movements. We had a good relationship before I became associated with the Young Lords during the Lincoln Detox takeover.

In 1971, I was recruited by the Lincoln Detox Victims Cadre, comprised of ex-prisoners and recovering addicts. I was familiar to them because of my role in the Republic of New
Afrika (RNA), which worked in conjunction with the Black Panthers during the takeover of Lincoln Hospital.

After various incompetent and non-essential programs had been taken over to better serve the people of New York, cadres of the political organizations went back to their regular political tasks. I went to work with the National Committee for Defense of Political Prisoners; including Herman Ferguson, Imari Obadele Ph.D. and the RNA-11. This committee worked with the National Conference of Black Lawyers.

One of the things that has got to be clear is that I was always a part of a movement. For most of my life, I have been involved in parts of the movement. When I became involved in Lincoln Detox I had already been in the RNA, the Black Caucus, and been a supporter of the RAM cases in Queens; I was already a political activist. When we all hooked up at Lincoln Detox, the major leadership of the Young Lords Party was a segment of what we called the “Lincoln Detox Collective.”

I was recruited to serve a specific function at Lincoln Detox because of my involvement with the takeover by ex-prisoners and recovering addicts. This was done by Director Luis Surita and Peter Jefferies, a.k.a. Atillah, who was the therapy coordinator of group sessions that would eventually become the Political Education component. We worked with the Black Panthers, the Young Lords Party and a white group called White Lightening.

2. What was it like working with the Young Lords and Dr. Smith? Had the Black Panthers cooperated with the Young Lords in the past?

Yes, there was a strong period of inter-organizational cooperation among several progressive organizations trying to improve service in the community.

This question gets into issues concerning the legality of research. Acupuncture was new in the United States and looked down on as an indigenous form of healing, so in order to give it legitimacy, the research and practice of it needed the support from Western medical practitioners and researchers. Doctors who put their lives and careers on the line were Steve Levine, Franklin Apfel, Richard Taft Jr., Barbara Zeller, Randall Maxie, John Lichtenstein and Mike Smith, amongst others. Dr. Steve Levine was needed for his credentials during the takeover of Lincoln Hospital. This takeover was coordinated by the Young Lords and the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party, as well as ex-convicts and victims of the drug plague along with the doctor’s collective.

Dr. Franklin Apfel was the anchor for the initial acupuncture research without a protocol at the experimental research stages. He had been a member of Students for a
Democratic Society (SDS), and became a founder of Doctors Without Borders.

Dr. Richard Taft Jr. led the research protocols and was responsible for clinical oversight and conventional detox, as well as the licensing and accreditation by authorities (National
Drug Abuse Council, New York Addiction Service Agency, and Health and Hospital Corporation).

Mike Smith handled the psychological component generally associated with drug addiction therapy. However, when Dr. Richard Taft Jr. was murdered (which we believe was carried out by the COINTELPRO program of the FBI), Mike Smith had to step into the position for the program to utilize his credentials, which also included internal medicine, to keep us in compliance and state certified.

I must also mention the clinic’s lawyer, Stanley Cohen. He dealt with and won every case we had from Lincoln Detox– cases dealing with probation issues, rights of welfare clients, workers rights, and police brutality.

3. When and where did you first learn about acupuncture?

Two parallel experiences occurred in 1970– a car accident involving two of my sons in South Jamaica, Queens that was so traumatic both of them were left hospitalized with severe brain injuries, resulting in comas and complete left and right side paralysis. In trying to satisfy my voluntary service to Lincoln Detox and be the primary caregiver/monitor to my sons, because their mother was also hospitalized, a close associate, Yuri Kochiyama,* took me to Chinatown. It was there I would witness and experience the healing power of acupuncture and moxibustion for the first time in the successful treatment of my sons’ traumatic brain injuries, resulting in total recovery from their paralysis and loss of speech. To me this was a miracle; it was also recognized by the attending Western doctors.

*Sister-Comrade Yuri is also known amongst “Movement Lore” for her attempts at saving Brother Malcolm X by applying artificial respiration, during his brutal assassination at the Audubon Ballroom.

4. What appealed to you about acupuncture?

The fact that it was non-chemical and that the practitioners didn’t wear traditional “white coats.” The ‘white coats’ have always been intimidating to the oppressed community. From my personal experience in assisting my mother, who has consistently needed treatment and evaluations of her deteriorating glaucoma, the disrespect, the indifference and the failure to provide information necessary to make meaningful decisions is associated with the historical arrogance of the status of ‘white coats’ in treating us as
guinea pigs for their drugs, therapies, research and experiments.

At that time, Doctors Without Borders H.U.R.U.M., was a healthcare activist organization that represented an intervention of doctors in establishing people’s health centers. The People’s Health Center doctors organized by progressive organizations began to spring up and have an impact. Pre-Lincoln Detox, I was employed by the various city hospitals in the community of Queens, New York.

5. How does acupuncture work for addiction treatment?

First of all, the theory of acupuncture for addiction treatment is not a novel concept in and of itself. Acupuncture has been a tool against drug addiction for over 100 years of recorded history. The under-exposed story of the Chinese and Vietnamese people’s struggles against opium and heroin addiction smacks at occidental hegemony. The successful use of acupuncture in China against 80% of addiction is nothing short of a miracle; if only the reality wasn’t so clear.

Acupuncture is considered a method of “Natural Healing” because it works by stimulating the flow of natural health-giving energies in the body. In contrast medications such as penicillin or methadone act by altering certain biological cells. We cannot explain or understand acupuncture in the same way that we explain Western medical treatments.** Acupuncture therapists can never rely on standardized treatment plans but always must discover the day-to-day changes in the patient’s energy. It is a form of self-help therapy, because the patient’s own re-balanced energy flow provides most of the health-giving relief.

Our use of acupuncture at Lincoln Detox defied an entrenched history and, dare I say, confronted collusion between the pharmaceutical, political and legislative components with the military industrial complex of that era; not to mention the burgeoning prison industrial complex as aided by the ensuing War on Drugs—that is the politics of it. The therapy stands on its own, based on the ancient art of traditional Chinese medicine– to apply energy flow to meridians and important points of the body on ears, hands, feet and head in order to determine what gave rise to relief. Remember that most drug addicts cannot conceive of anything that will make them feel relaxed and “good” without making them feel “high” or sedated. Acupuncture is a truly revolutionary treatment in the drug abuse field, because its effects contradict the almost universal link between being relaxed and being high. Acupuncture brings more awareness and more relaxation.

**Editor’s note: this is the historical explanation of acupuncture; in recent decades studies have shown some of how and why acupuncture does work based on how it affects cells, neurochemistry and circulation.

6. How did you get acupuncture integrated into Lincoln Detox? Some folks mentioned that you and some others took a trip to Canada to learn about it, is that right? If so, when was that, and who was in that group? If not, how did it really happen?

First you must understand that every decision at Lincoln Detox was made on a collective basis. The battle over the use of methadone and to what degree to use it was an ongoing struggle. What separated Lincoln Detox from the other drug programs was that we refused to maintain any patient on drugs. Rather, we would only use it for detoxification purposes. We believed in drug-free treatment methods and used political education, preventative care and the development of a healthy lifestyle in conjunction with a social and political analysis of the drug plague. I must say we were successful in that method, and our rates of recidivism were low. We augmented that form of treatment only when necessary.

I brought acupuncture to our collective, since I was also doing political education therapy, and it gained unanimous support. Learning acupuncture was a process. If you’re asking about licensing, that’s a history to be discussed. The licensing and getting acupuncture into the program were two different timetables. Again, this exposed the importance of having a licensed Western doctor willing to stand firm against the propaganda of the Red Scare and anti-China paradigm to come forward and use their licensing to benefit the people’s needs. That’s why they must be honored, and that’s why Richard Taft (yes, the grandson of President Taft) is an unsung martyr. We started treating people with acupuncture before we had licensing; it starting by picking up books, finding points in the ear and trying it out on patients willing to give it a go in order to rid themselves of the poisons infecting their body. So we were actually doing acupuncture treatment on patients prior to developing a research protocol and prior to being licensed by the state. We were licensed by the people as this stage of therapy became, through the words and testimony of our patients, “notorious.” We were attacked by other methadone maintenance programs, the Health and Hospital Corporation, the National Institution of Health and National Caucus of Labor Committees.

Instead of analyzing and accepting the effectiveness of Eastern medicine in the treatment of drug addiction, the rejection of it was considered ‘patriotic’ amongst the political and medical establishments. So it should not be a surprise that our program drew the ire of then Brooklyn Assemblyman Charles Schumer, now a U.S. Senator, who at the direction of Mayor Ed Koch led an assembly evaluation of all the so-called third-party residential community programs. These programs were where we kept people in over a certain length of time to allow them to heal. He felt that we had too much control, that our staff had too much control over victims of the drug plague without being certified; and you know, victims politicized to the root cause of their condition were a threat to the right-wing element. Koch, who at the time was the head of the New York City Board of Estimates, led and then won his Mayoral campaign on attacking anti-poverty programs and drug treatment programs in New York City.

Upon proving our successful approach to the devastating plague, the Addiction Service Agency of New York and the National Institute of Health gave us research protocols that began the second stage of our development and spread treatment and training. So as you see, it’s a long story; yes, we went to Montreal where we studied under Dr. Mario Wexu the Director of Education at the International Association of Traditional Chinese Acupuncture, then on to the People’s Republic of China, England and Switzerland to understand the theory and its application. But, more importantly, doctors from all over the world came to Lincoln Detox to view, assist, teach and research this project. So, we developed predictability and we became the base of acupuncturists who were revolutionaries in this country.

7. Who were the main proponents of doing acupuncture at Lincoln Detox?

First of all, the collective made a decision to implement acupuncture as a modality of our overall detoxification and rehabilitation program. Each aspect of Lincoln Detox’s function was governed by the collective decision-making process, involving every employee of every aspect of our program, even some not mentioned; such as the Volunteer Collective that served as a kind of trial-by-fire pathway to serving specific functions within an individual cadre, and eventual employment.

Who were the proponents of it? Everyone was in on the decision-making process to research, implement and apply. The acupuncture collective (administrative, treatment and
fundraising) at any given point involved eight people: Walter Bosque, Richard Delaney, Ricky Murphy, Dr. Barbara Zeller, Angie Wilson, Roxanne Squire, Maria Mendoza, Jennifer Dohrn and Dr. Alan Berkman. While four men and one woman performed the
treatment, one woman conducted follow-up examinations.

8. Were other Black Panthers at Lincoln Detox interested in acupuncture, or just you?

To be a part of the acupuncture collective is not necessarily to be part of any other organization. As I explained earlier, once a decision had been made by our collective we were all in. Individual politically progressive organizations submerged their functions to the will of the Lincoln Detox collective decision-making process. Yes, I played a major role and I believe I did introduce the theory and principles of acupuncture, as I understood them at that time, to our program. I happened to be a member of the Republic of New Afrika (RNA), and I accept that I was a crucial liaison to the Black Panther Party because of their members within my family as well as our close organizational affiliation based in part on shared principles and objectives.

9. When you first decided to introduce acupuncture into the program, what was the reaction from everyone else?

Like the rest of the population of the country, most of us were generally ignorant to such a therapy and its specific application to addiction. The principle upon which we engaged the drug plague was that we had to confront chemical warfare. Therapies such as yoga, meditation, tai chi, reflexology, or even dieting, were all modalities vital to our principle of countering chemical warfare using the umbrella term ‘alternative medicine.’ In concert with our principles, whether or not it was effective depended on theory and practice. The approach of the program was to let 1,000 flowers bloom!

10. What are advantages of acupuncture over other modalities, like methadone?

To me that would seem obvious by now, so it looks as if the old becomes new again. From the beginning, research of the National Drug Abuse Conference and Richard Nixon’s Lexington, Kentucky drug research program (known as the “Methadone
Maintenance-Intervention Program”) to the “Rockefeller Program” that involved the forced application of methadone intertwined with the criminal justice system so that use of methadone was a requirement for aid to dependent children, if you wanted to get on welfare, and for parole and probation. The research had not determined what would be a safe dosage at varied stages of addiction, nor what would the prolonged effects of created secondary symptoms would be. Instead of people being detoxified off of methadone, they were being given increased dosages, i.e. “maintenance.”

You see, I’ve been out of the research loop because of the many years in prison and I’m not sure how it’s been defined and focused to deliver the data relative to the effectiveness of methadone in this phase of the opioid epidemic. I have no statistics on crib deaths caused by over-prescribed methadone, but I can say that when I left the field most of the municipal New York City hospitals made available acupuncture detox in conjunction with acupuncture–methadone detoxification. The approval by the FDA and availability of Narcan at the corner store pharmacy I do believe will save lives, but I am not sure how it affects the overdoses of methadone or Suboxone although I have seen a wide range of types of overdoses in prison. My understanding is that at any given time in the last 40 years, methadone has been from 40 to 70% of the black market of illicit drugs on the streets. These statistics should be updated, including other pharmaceutical drugs like Suboxone, etc.

Back to the question…There are no contraindicating symptoms with acupuncture. What else can we say– there is no adverse effect on birth or the psychological, social, emotional or physical wellbeing of the patient.*** However, it has been shown that prolonged methadone use creates an impaired state of psychosis within the addict, amongst many other ill-regarded secondary symptoms generally consistent with other “chemical replacement” therapies such as insomnia, bone pain, and depression that were untreatable by any other means. Acupuncture also reduces cravings for drugs by strengthening normal physiological processes and helping the person cope with anxiety in a relaxed manner.

***Editor’s note: Other than specific points being contraindicated in specific circumstances such as pregnancy or cancer, there are no universal contraindications that would entirely prohibit the use of acupuncture for a patient.

11. Why did you decide to step away from Lincoln Detox? (And when was that?) Did any Black Panthers remain affiliated with Lincoln Detox after you left?

It was never my intent and I absolutely refused to leave Lincoln Detox. I was forcefully removed by the NYPD on orders of the political establishment, and I believe in collusion
with pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly, the major manufacturer and distributor of methadone. The principle funder of Eli Lilly was the Rockefeller fortune, and functioned as an architect of the Rockefeller drug laws in New York State.

I had several reasons for resisting the baseless forced transfer; one, rejecting forced methadone therapy; two, opposing the deconstruction of the collective decision-making process; the third was opposing the discontinuation of the political analysis of the root of addiction, i.e. Political Education as part of the counseling process; and the fourth was uncovering and exposing the manipulation of the 20-bed inpatient unit.

The 20-bed inpatient unit was earmarked from our budget for research of general detoxification methods, paired with methadone detoxification and the application of acupuncture in the Lincoln Hospital general care ward. It was the most efficacious way to determine research results with statistics, case studies and findings, which was the objective of the funding proposal for the inpatient unit approved by the National Drug Abuse Council, New York Addiction Service Agency and allegedly the Health and
Hospital Corporation of the city. These three entities provided funding for the breadth of the program. The Health and Hospital Corporation provided funding by means of in-kind contributions: available space, office availability, finance management, and program assistance from the hospital.

Lincoln Detox was actually located in the nurse’s residence, separated by a tunnel from the Lincoln Hospital facility. Lincoln Hospital’s Emergency Intake was the emergency facility for overdoses and other conditions for the entire South Bronx area. More importantly, the 20-bed unit was never under the control of Lincoln Detox, nor the Lincoln Detox Acupuncture Unit. This circumstance would later become the basis for allegations and accusations of misappropriation of funds and malfeasance leading to the justification for the termination of our staff and program. At that point, Assemblyman Charles Schumer and Mayor Koch were no longer interested in the financial integrity of Lincoln Hospital, only the elimination of our program and of acupuncture as a detoxification modality.

Upon the closing, were Lincoln Detox workers accused of misappropriation of funds? Was Lincoln Detox performing research with a 20-bed Inpatient Unit of Lincoln Hospital? Did the budget in which Lincoln Detox had include a 20-bed unit? Who performed the audit, for the financial and in-kind contributions of Lincoln Hospital, and the management of Lincoln Detox’s budget?

Upon answering these questions, it is my belief it exposes the responsibility that Lincoln Hospital carries for the 20-bed Inpatient Unit, budgeted to Lincoln Detox by three funding agencies– it shows they were responsible for years of misappropriation of finances allocated for the 20-bed unit that Lincoln Detox never had direct access to financially or physically. These funds were allocated by three funding agencies: federal, state and the in-kind contributions of the City of New York in particular. Lincoln Hospital’s inadequate services led to the takeover of the Health and Hospital Corporation downtown by Lincoln Detox in order to get some answers and access to those resources, all of which is well-documented.

Lincoln Detox staff administrators, of which I was one, had no direct control of cash or accounts. Our management of funds went straight through the Health and Hospital Corporation billing service. We did have petty cash availability, but a 20-bed unit in the municipal hospital represented at least, now I forget the main figures, but at least $400,000-500,000 a year. I believe we had a comingled budget of $900,000 to cover 60 staff members, as well as one of the highest rates of incoming patients around the entire country. Instead of obtaining the unit to serve our treatment/research functions, we contributed to Lincoln Hospital and the Health and Hospital Corporation by providing crisis treatment to addicted patients whose intake was not generated by the drug program or acupuncture program, but the degenerating conditions of the population of the South Bronx and surrounding areas.

So, therefore, by 1978 I was let go under a guise of misinformation covered by a blanket of militant/terrorist counter-narrative because of all the progressive organizations represented within our collective. The day I was fired, they sent 200 policemen up to the clinic, surrounded the clinic and just controlled the whole thing firing all of us or telling us that we were to be sent to other hospitals.

Acupuncture in the hands of the revolutionary-minded, particularly addressing addiction, was an intervention that the government was not willing to accept at the time because it attacked and exposed the complicity of the government in imposing chemical warfare on certain segments of the community. We weren’t only providing medical care and exposing chemical warfare, we were challenging Western occidental medicine by Eastern medicine and natural healing. Right now, today you can go into New York City and in those municipal hospitals within Black and Puerto Rican and poor communities– a municipal hospital, not a private hospital but the municipal hospital– you can now receive acupuncture treatment for drug withdrawal as an alternative method of treatment. I am proud to have been a part of the required effort and accomplishments making this possible.

It means a lot to me and remains one of the most important periods of my life, guiding my human rights priorities. Those experiences completely reflect the narrative of my life’s journey; both the good and the bad, absent the disinformation, misinformation and slander.

From 1978 and on I ventured out to co-found and co-direct the Black Acupuncture Association of North America (BAANA) and the Harlem Institute of Acupuncture, along with Dr. Richard Delaney, Walter Bosque and several of my colleagues with the wisdom and knowledge garnered from our shared experiences at Lincoln Detox. Together we trained and internationally certified over 100 students in the medical sciences of acupuncture under the International Association of Acupuncture and the World Health Organization; some of these students were already medical doctors licensed by various states here in the U.S. As you can see, the acupuncture front was a very real threat to existing institutions and the ability to fight chemical warfare was a significant contribution to our liberation. Acupuncture and Lincoln Detox together was a political and medical threat to the theory of legalized chemical warfare and the theory of chemical replacement treatment therapy within our communities.

Simultaneous to my work and responsibilities at Lincoln Detox pursuing acupuncture as a detoxification modality, myself and others co-founded the National Task Force for Co-Intel-Pro Litigation and Research. Our objective and purpose was to investigate expose the FBI and other American law agencies for criminal acts, domestic spying, dirty tricks, repression, and low-intensity warfare maneuvers against the African Independence struggle and others struggling against oppression in America. Through our efforts, including Freedom of Information litigation, we assisted in the exposure of chemical warfare tactics.

Today, I am encouraged in this particular period of awareness of opioid addiction and the role of the pharmaceutical companies in furthering this disease. Their allies are being exposed in Congress by Senator Kamala Harris of California and Senator Ron Paul of Kentucky as a bi-partisan effort to investigate and determine the extent of that collusion in the present. Frankly, this investigation should result in criminal charges, and more importantly expose the past misdeeds as well as absolve those of us who have waged the struggle against chemical warfare. We must all pay close attention to the profiteers within the legalized drug market, for whom healing takes a back seat to their bottom line. You might not call it chemical warfare, but in the 60s, 70s and 80s there was no discernable distinction.

Interview of Dr. Mutulu Shakur, conducted and prepared by Steven Michael Hinshaw at United States Penitentiary Victorville, Adelanto, California on December 9, 2017, at the
behest of Olga Khazan.

Please donate to help fund Dr. Shakur’s push for release. mutulushakur.com and follow the official page for updates @freedrmshakur

you can donate at Medical 🏥 Aid

http://mutulushakur.com/site/2019/12/medical-legal-update/

or you can donate to the documentary at 🔗 🎥 https://www.indiegogo.com/projects/truth-reconciliation-dr-mutulu-shakur/

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please sign ✍🏾 and share this petition by any means necessary 👉🏾https://campaigns.organizefor.org/petitions/support-parole-and-compassionate-release-for-dr-mutulu-shakur

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2018 Interview about Acupuncture & The Opioid Crisis

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NDI IGBO ( The Ancient People ) are Forest People not Desert People, Indigenous People

Indigenous NDI IGBO are Forest 🌳 people not Desert 🌵 People The ancient civilization start from IGBO NATION not in Egypt.. 99% of history white Supremacy put up in Egypt happen in Igbo land our ancestors built many ancient civilizations such as the Ugwelle (6,000 BCE), Afikpo (4,500 BCE)Nsukka civilization (500,000 BC)UmuEri/UmuNri dynasties (4,000BCE), Igbo Ukwu (4,500CE) and etc.They developed sophisticated architecture such as the Nsude pyramids in Agbaja, Mbari structures, and etc. Igbos developed writing scripts such as Uli, Aniocha writing systems, Nsidibi, Ikwu, and many more. The level of knowledge and scientific (especially metaphysics) discoveries and practices done by the Igbo Civilizations is most likely beyond our imagination.

Igboland Oldest Democracy – Haki Kweli Shakur

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The Kurukan Fuga Charter ( Mande Charter ) The Oldest Human Rights Charter 1222

1222

This is an African charter.

It is the transcription of an oral content, which dates back to the reign of Sundiata Keita first ruler who lived from 1190 to 1255. This charter is called “The Mande Charter. » It was solemnly proclaimed the day of the enthronement as Emperor Sundiata Keita of Mali at the end of 1236. It did not exist prior written record of the 1960s and its authenticity is questioned by several “researchers” (maybe by “researchers” who tend to think that everyone should do and live like them because from their sight they are THE reference… Who knows ?).

There are several text of the Charter, as described below, which dates back to 1222 and comes from the work from the 1970s by Wa Kamissoko and Youssouf Tata Cisse, is registered in 2009 by UNESCO on the list of Intangible Cultural Heritage of humanity.

The Mandé Charter of 1222

1.The hunters declare:

Every life is a life.

It is true that a life comes into existence before another life but no life is more ‘ancient’, more respectable than any other. In the same way no one life is superior to any other.

2. The hunters declare:

As each life is a life, any wrong done unto a life requires reparation. Consequently, no one should freely attack his neighbor, no one should do wrong to his neighbor, no one should torment his fellow-man.

Igboland Oldest Democracy-Constitution, The Kurukan Fuga Charter The Oldest Human Rights Charter 1222 – Haki Kweli Shakur

 

3. The hunters declare:

That each person should watch over their neighbor, that each person should venerate their genitors, that each person should educate their children as it should be done, that each person should provide to the needs of their family.

4. The hunters declare:

That each person should watch over the country of their fathers. By country,or motherland, or ‘faso’. One must understand also people ; For ‘any country, any land which were to see people disappear would soon become nostalgic’.

5. The hunters declare:

Hunger is not a good thing, there is nothing worse than this on this earth. As long as we hold the quiver and the bow, hunger will no longer kill anyone in the Manden, if by chance hunger were to arrive, war will no longer destroy any village for the acquiring of slaves ; that is to say that no one will from now on place the bit in the mouth of his fellow-man to sell him. Furthermore no one will be beaten and even less put to death because he is the son of a slave.

6. The hunters declare:

The essence of slavery is today extinguished,‘from one wall to the other,’ from one border to the other of the Manden. Raids are banned from this day onwards in the Manden. The torments born of these horrors have ended from this day onwards in the Manden. What an ordeal this torment is! Especially when the oppressed has no recourse, the slave does not benefit from any consideration, anywhere in the world.

7. People from the old days tell us:

‘Man as an individual made of flesh and bone, of marrow and nerves, covered of skin and hair, eats food and drink, but his ‘soul’, his spirit lives on three things:

He must see what he wishes to see, he must say what he wishes to say and do what he wishes to do. If one of these things were to miss from the human soul it would suffer and would surely become sick.

In consequence the hunters declare:

Each person from now on is free to dispose of his own person. Each person is free to act in the way he wishes. Each person disposes of the fruit of his labour from now on.

This is the oath of the Manden For the ears of the world.

Why do we believe in this originally verbal charter?

This text is considered, as well as the “Magna Carta” produced in 1215 in England as one of the oldest references concerning fundamental rights. Its recognition would confirm its legal value and its universal scope.

According to Lilian Thuram, writer of “My black stars” and ancient professional football player, “One of the most perverse theories is to think that Africa’s history is reduced to colonization and slavery. In other words, the history of black people begin the day European has seen them! This occult work reduces millennia of African civilizations – such as those of Nubia, Congo, Zimbabwe, etc. – And reinforces the idea of ​​the intellectual inferiority, cultural, moral and political of black people. “

The charter of Manden proves once again that Europeans did not invent anything, and well before they start subtract People to their will, they were already in the future; and it is this identity that we have to recover!

Peace! & Love!

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Igboland oldest Constitution & Democracy, Pre-colonial Political Systems (Igbo Traditional System)

The Igbo Traditional Political System

Nri in Anambra state is regarded as the ancestral home of the Igbos. In Nigeria the Igbos generally occupied the former Eastern Region and a part of the Mid Western region. The Igbos generally had no Kings or Chiefs (i.e. Igbos enwe-Eze). However few towns like Onitsha had what looked like a recognized chief. The Igbos operated a democratic system of Government. The highest democratic institution among the Igbos is the Oha-na Eze (i.e. the Town Assembly). The largest political unit was the village/village group. This was by kindred then family unit.

The Igbos had a decentralised system of government. The executive, legislative and judicial power were vested in the

Oha-na Eze
the council of elders
the Ofor title holders
the family
the Ozor title holders
the Age-Grade
the Umuada
the ‘Ala’ or the Earth’s goddess represented by a Chief Priest.

The administrative system was decentralized and characterized by the principle of acephalous (absence of a centralized government). It was therefore a chiefless society which was segmentary and egalitarian in nature. There was no supreme king like Oba and Emirs in the North. Interestingly, however, each village in Igbo society is normally administered like a Republic, independent or sovereign state.

Igboland Oldest Democracy & Constitution – Haki Shakur/ Ikechukwu

Pre-colonial Political Systems (Igbo Traditional System)
Be that as it may, there existed many institutions in the pre-colonial Igbo society, charged with the responsibility of judicial, legislative and executive functions like: the family group, village council, Ozo title holder, age grades and the Ala.

The Family Group is one of the most recognized institutions in pre-colonial Igbo society as the basic unit of every political institution. It comprised people of the same family. Not only that, each family group was autonomously headed by the title holder called ‘OKPARA’. The Okpara controls the family and judges any family disputes. He performed ritual and ceremonial functions on behalf of the family.
Village Council is popularly known as council of elders, it comprised of all the family heads in the village. However, the most important thing is that each village was administered as a sovereign entity and each family heads (Okpara) were reckoned or named an ‘Ofo’ title holders in the village. They had the responsibility of discussing the matters that affected the life of the citizens. They also helped in maintaining law and order in the society as well as settlement of dispute between or among group of families. The chairman of the council was known as the oldest of the OKPARAS.
Ozo Title Holders was seen as the highest title of honour which was given to the specific individuals in pre-colonial Igbo society. To become an Ozo title holder, one must be prestigious, popular and wealthy. The most amazing thing is that the position wasn’t hereditary. Ozos were highly influential. They settled and adjudicated on different disputes. Not only that, they rendered valuable advice to the family heads (the Okparas).

Age grade was another important institution in pre-colonial Igbo society. They are group of young men on the basis of age.

The Ala is another political institution in pre-colonial Igbo society. Ala was popularly known as the goddess of the land. Cases like murder, homicide, etc was judged by the Ala. To any Ala, there is a priest called Ala’s priest who interpreted the pronouncement of the Ala. This explained Igbos belief in Amadioha, Igew-ka-ala, Ogbaegbu, etc in terms of needs.
Finally, the Igbo society is segmentary, Republican and sovereign in nature. There were no chiefs compared to Yoruba and Hausa/Fulani pre-colonial administration.

Political Administration

The main political institutions among the Igbos were the Oha-na Eze (The town assembly, the King or Rulers, the Council of Elders or Chiefs and the Age Grade). The Assembly of the whole town or village group is the highest platform for political decision and action. All adult males can attend and participate in the meetings of the town assembly. In the town assembly the titled elders presided over the affairs, deliberated over general decisions on a separate caucus consultation called ‘Igba Izu’ and finally announced final decisions which quite often won a general vocal approval of the people. Occasionally, the final decisions of the elders are rejected and fresh efforts are started towards winning common consensus.

The ruler or king where they existed was the most important person in the town or village. He had the Judicial, Legislative and Executive powers but didn’t act alone. He was advised by his chiefs who could remove him from the office.,, if he did not rule in the public interest.

The council of elders were made up of chiefs and elders in the town. For example, the war chiefs, the religious chiefs, the market chiefs, the family or ward chiefs e.t.c are all members of the council of elders. The functions of the council of elders include :

Advising the King on day to day administration
Removing the King if need be Regulating trade by fixing price for essential commodities Deciding on days for religious ceremonies and carrying them out Trying offenders and ensuring that the punishment imposed on them are carried out Organising age groups and assigning duties to them Negotiating peace with neighbours as well as planning for and engaging in war The Age grade are formed by males and in some cases female children born within a given age bracket. For example, Children born between 1960 to 1965, can be grouped under one age-grad. Each age grade usually is organised under a leader and other officials. The leader normally is the oldest or strongest member. The age-grades were called upon to perform public services and duties such as:

Clearing bush path
Repairing the King’s house and bridges
Preparing the town centres for ceremonies and Religious duties such as taking part in rituals and dances
War duties and civic duties e.g. performing ceremonial functions
Maintenance of Law and order and Peace
Sanitation and cleaning of the environment
Judicial Administration

The family settled minor disputes within the family level
Council of Elders or “Amala” handled major disputes
The final adjudication of cases was done by the deities
The age grade settled minor disputes among themselves
The Ala plays great role in Judicial functions. For example offences such as homicide, murder and birth of abnormal children are crimes against the Ala.

The chief also takes part in judicial settlement.
Sometimes, the whole village may constitute itself into a court for the purpose of settling disputes. Finally, the ‘Dibie’ (native doctor) also settles disputes among the people.

Religion

The Igbos practised traditional religion. They had chief priests who performed sacrifices from time to time to appease the gods. The Igbos have great respect for the deities and the departed ancestors. The chief priests were the link between the people and the deities, as well as departed ancestors. The Igbos believe in re-incarnation. Profaning of deities was a very serious offence among the Igbos. The religious life of the Igbos were surrounded by mysticisms and superstitions.

Features of the Igbo Traditional Political System

Republic in Nature
Powers were decentralized
No system of taxation
No separation of power
Direct democracy when it comes to decision making

source:

https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.legit.ng/amp/1175293-pre-colonial-administration-igboland.html

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