Revolutionary Change New Afrikan Freedom Fighter Baba Herman Fergusun Lives On


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Herman Ferguson at court today. February 27, 1968. (Photo by Vic DeLucia/New York Post Archives / (c) NYP Holdings, Inc. via Getty Images)

Herman Ferguson at court today. February 27, 1968. (Photo by Vic DeLucia/New York Post Archives / (c) NYP Holdings, Inc. via Getty Images)

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12-31-1920 – 9-25-2014

His name was Herman Ferguson, and if you’re not dialed into the Black Nationalist Movement, the name may not ring a bell of recognition.

But to those aware of the Black Power Movement of the 1950s, ‘60s, and ‘70s, Herman Ferguson’s life, role and commitment rings like a bell in the night.

For Ferguson, often accompanied by his wife and comrade, Iyaluua Nehanda, joined Black groups an a New Afrikan Nation ( Provisional Government Republic of New Afrika ) that supported the fight for freedom. He joined several, but perhaps few had more historical significance than his joining of both the groups formed by Malcolm X after his painful break from the Nation of Islam; the Organization of African American Unity (OAAU) and Muslim Mosque, Inc. (MMI).

He met Malcolm in the late ‘50s, when he was still in the Nation, and became a staunch supporter thereafter.

In 1967, he and fellow members of the Jamaica Rifle and Pistol Club (in queens, NY), were arrested and charged with the planned assassination of two prominent civil rights leaders. After a conviction a year later, Ferguson fled the U.S., and he and his wife (3 years later) began a life in Guyana, working in the field of education.

They stayed there for 19 years, and lived good lives there. Ferguson could’ve retired with a government pension under his assumed name, “Paul Adams”, for he spent many years as an officer of the Guyanese Defense Force.

But the call of home only got louder with time.

Ferguson said he missed his “family”, his “childhood friends”, and “the Movement.”

His wife, Iyaluua, said, “I don’t think people really understand the nature of exile.” She explained, “Exile is death.”

So, Herman Ferguson and his wife returned to the U.S., where he knew a jail cell awaited him, but he did so, in part, because the weather had changed, in that the release of top-secret COINTEL-PRO files revealed FBI skullduggery against Black and anti-war activists. Also, several prominent Black Panther figures (like the late BPP Minister of information, Eldridge Cleaver), and Weatherman (a white, anti-imperialist group) had returned to the States.

He did 3 years, got out and hit the ground running, working on behalf of other imprisoned revolutionaries, by organizing, speaking out and building support for such efforts. He and his wife gave deep and broad support for the Malcolm X Grassroots Movement, headquartered in NY.

For over 50 years he fought for the same ideas and principles that Malcolm supported: Black Nationalism, popular self-defense, and Black self-determination.

Now, after 93 years of life, Baba Herman Ferguson has returned to the Ancestors.

Herman was a long distance runner in the battle for national liberation. He served as a judge and District Representative of the Republic of New Afrika, was a member and Chairman of the Education Committee of brother Malcolm X’s Organization of Afro-American Unity (OAAU), and was present on that fateful February 21, 1965 day at the Audubon Ballroom when Malcolm was assassinated. He vowed to carry on Malcolm’s teachings as best he could, organizing the Black Brotherhood Improvement Association in Jamaica, Queens, holding street corner rallies, political education classes, martial arts classes and forming the Jamaica Rifle and Pistol Club, Inc.—all of which made him a target of the u.s. government’s Counterintelligence Program (Cointelpro).

In 1967, Herman chose exile rather than go to prison on the false charges he was convicted of. He, along with his life partner Iyaluua Ferguson, spent nineteen years in Guyana, South America, where he participated in Guyana’s nation-building, rising to the rank of Assistant Director General in it National Service, joined the Guyana Defense Force (GDF), and retired with the rank of Lt. Colonel.

In 1989, Herman voluntarily returned to the united states and was immediately sent to prison. Upon his release, he immediately stepped back into work in the nationalist community, co-founding the Malcolm X Commemoration Committee (now Chairman Emeritus), the National Jericho Movement for Amnesty & Recognition of u.s. held P/POWs, publishing NATION TIME, serving as Administrator of the New Afrikan Liberation Front and co-chairing the Queens chapter of NCOBRA (National Coalition of Blacks for Reparations in America).

Haki Kweli Shakur 9-25-51ADM August Third Collective NAPLA NAIM

 

Dinwiddie Virginia Slave Name Ned Rebels and Beat Plantation Owner in 1861

From 1790 to 1860, Dinwiddie County had one of the largest slave populations in the state (7334 in 1790; 12,774 in 1860). It also had one of the largest free colored populations (561 in 1790; 3746 in 1860). Ten years later in 1870, Dinwiddie County had one of the largest African American populations in Virginia (17,664) – the town of Petersburg….

Slave Name Ned Rebels Against Slave Labor 1861

On March 22, 1861, the New York Times reprinted for its readers a story from Virginia that had appeared three days before in thePetersburgh Express. The story related an account of a slave in Dinwiddie County, Virginia, who had beaten his owner unconscious. It read:

Mr. SUTHERLAND was out on his plantation superintending the clearing of a patch of new ground, and directed NED, a robust fellow, to lift a log to a pile of burning brush. The negro replied that he would not do it, which Mr. SUTHERLAND interpreted to mean that the negro did not feel able to lift the log, and stooped to do so himself. While stooping, NED seized a big stick, and striking his master a powerful blow over the back, felled him to the earth. He then repeated his blows until the stick was broken in many pieces, and Mr. SUTHERLAND lay apparently lifeless. Thinking he had accomplished his purpose, he started off, and had proceeded about fifty yards when he saw his master attempt to rise. Seizing another stick, he returned, and striking Mr. SUTHERLAND another severe blow across the face, mashed his nose flat to the face, and then continued to beat him across the arms, breast and legs, until the flesh was pummeled to the consistency of jelly. Some small negroes were present when the beating commenced, but they were mere children, and dreaded the ferocity of NED as though he had been a tiger, and were therefore prevented from offering assistance. As soon as they could get to the house the intelligence was communicated to some of the neighbors, and all turned out en masse to hunt us the fiend, some three or four going to the assistance of Mr SUTHERLAND, and conveying him to his residence. Upon reaching the house he manifested indications of returning consciousness, and at last accounts, Sunday, was alive, though in a very precarious condition.

The search of the neighbors for NED proved unavailing, but the account of the outrage reached this city, and on Sunday night Mr. GEORGE ALSOP, who knew the scoundrel, succeeded in arresting him at the depot of the South-Side Railroad in this city, and lodged him in jail. He will be transferred to the County of Dinwiddle for trial.

While Ned was not the first slave to attack his owner and the article provides no insight into why Ned committed such a desperate act, the timing is interesting. Just as some bold slaves sought escape at outposts like Sumter and Pickens in March 1861, perhaps Ned felt the time was ripe to turn the tables on his owner. Certainly, Ned’s actions might have had nothing to do with crisis atmosphere in Virginia in Spring 1861. But with slaveholders in Virginia on edge (see Civil War Emancipation for February 26, 2011) no doubt the mood also affected their slaves.

Civil War Emancipation invites the thoughts of its readers on this incident.

Source:http://www.nytimes.com/1861/03/22/news/a-virginian-beaten-by-his-own-slave.htmlslavery

Haki Kweli Shakur 9-24-51ADM August Third Collective NAPLA -New Afrikan Independence Movement

 

 

September 23rd 1800 General Gabriel Prosser Captured x Timeline of Gabriel’s Rebellion #SeedofGabrielProsser

After Gabriel’s Rebellion had Been Suppressed by Rain and Two Informants Gabriel escaped down the Chickahominy River but on September 23, 1800, he was arrested and imprisoned at the newly built Penitentiary.

  • December 3, 1797 – Richmond authorities charge Jacob Valentine, a white man, with “committing and encouraging an Insurrection among the Slaves of the City of Richmond.”
  • December 11, 1797 – Charged with “committing and encouraging an Insurrection among the Slaves of the City of Richmond,” Jacob Valentine, a white man, appears in a Richmond court but is unable to post a bond.
  • Late Spring 1800 – Sam Byrd Jr., an enslaved man owned by Jane Clarke of Henrico, proposes an uprising and begins recruiting among other enslaved men residing in the neighborhood of the Brook. The recruiting lasts through the summer.
  • June 1800 – James Thomson Callender, a critic of the Adams administration, is tried for sedition. The U.S. Army regiment stationed near Richmond is discharged by June 14.
  • August 9, 1800 – Rumors of a slave plot—what eventually will be called Gabriel’s Conspiracy—surface in Petersburg.
  • August 10, 1800 – On or about this day, a group of enslaved men led by Gabriel and Jack Bowler set the date for their planned uprising. They will meet on the night of August 30 and attack Richmond.
  • August 30, 1800 – In a letter to James Monroe, Mosby Sheppard warns the governor of a planned insurrection that comes to be known as Gabriel’s Conspiracy.
  • August 30, 1800 – A planned slave revolt led by a blacksmith named Gabriel (owned by Thomas Prosser, of Henrico County) is thwarted when a huge storm delays the meeting of the conspirators and a few nervous slaves reveal the plot to their masters.
  • August 31, 1800 – Patrols in Henrico County begin capturing enslaved men who are suspected with involvement in Gabriel’s Conspiracy. The plot’s leaders, Gabriel and Jack Bowler, disappear.
  • September 2, 1800 – Militia units in Richmond, Henrico, and Chesterfield mobilize upon news of a planned slave uprising, or what comes to be known as Gabriel’s Conspiracy. Guards are sent to the state arsenal at Point of Fork and patrols are ordered out across the state.
  • September 11, 1800 – The trials of enslaved men suspected of participating in Gabriel’s Conspiracy begin in Henrico County.
  • September 12, 1800 – Five enslaved men connected to Gabriel’s Conspiracy are executed in Richmond: Will, John, Isaac, Michael, and Ned.
  • September 15, 1800 – Five enslaved men connected to Gabriel’s Conspiracy are executed in Richmond: Solomon, Billy, Martin, Charles, and Frank.
  • September 15, 1800 – In a letter to Thomas Jefferson, Governor James Monroe seeks advice on how best to punish those slaves arrested in connection with Gabriel’s Conspiracy.
  • September 18, 1800 – Five enslaved men connected to Gabriel’s Conspiracy are executed in Richmond: Sawney, Peter, Jupiter, Sam, and Isham. Ben Woolfolk is pardoned for providing evidence.
  • September 20, 1800 – In a letter to Governor James Monroe, Thomas Jefferson offers his advice on how best to punish those slaves arrested in connection with Gabriel’s Conspiracy.
  • September 23, 1800 – Gabriel, an enslaved man owned by Thomas H. Prosser, is captured in Norfolk aboard a schooner. He may have had the captain’s assistance, but an enslaved crewman turns him in for conspiring to lead a slave insurrection.
  • October 1, 1800 – By this date the militia is mustered in Nansemond and Suffolk for about ten days in order to provide security in the wake of Gabriel’s Conspiracy.
  • October 2, 1800 – Jacob, an enslaved man belonging to Thomas Woodfin and convicted in connection with Gabriel’s Conspiracy, is pardoned.
  • October 3, 1800 – The Council of State rejects Governor James Monroe’s proposal to reprieve enslaved men condemned in connection with Gabriel’s Conspiracy until the next meeting of the General Assembly. Five slaves are pardoned: Abraham, Dick, Peter, and two men named Billy.
  • October 6, 1800 – Gabriel, an enslaved man owned by Thomas H. Prosser, is tried and convicted of conspiring to lead a slave insurrection.
  • October 8, 1800 – Three enslaved men connected to Gabriel’s Conspiracy are pardoned: Solomon, Dick, and Randolph.
  • October 9, 1800 – Jack Bowler, alias Jack Ditcher, an enslaved man owned by the estate of the late William Bowler, surrenders to authorities, who suspect him of conspiring to lead a slave insurrection.
  • October 10, 1800 – Ten enslaved men connected to Gabriel’s Conspiracy are executed in and about Richmond: Gabriel, Sam Byrd Jr., Isaac, Laddis, George, Gilbert, Tom, Michael, William, and Sam Graham.
  • October 24, 1800 – Peter, an enslaved man owned by the estate of W. P. Claiborne, is executed in Dinwiddie County for conspiracy, possibly in connection with Gabriel’s plot.
  • October 29, 1800 – Jack Bowler, alias Jack Ditcher, an enslaved man owned by the estate of the late William Bowler, is tried and convicted of conspiring to lead a slave insurrection.
  • November 8, 1800 – James, an enslaved man owned by Elisha Price, and Scipio, an enslaved man owned by Paul Thilman, both of whom have been convicted for their involvement in Gabriel’s Conspiracy, are pardoned.
  • December 9, 1800 – Ned, an enslaved man owned by William Young and convicted for his involvement in Gabriel’s Conspiracy, is pardoned.
  • September 17, 1831 – In “Gabriel’s Defeat,” the editors of The Liberator reprint a romanticized account of Gabriel’s Conspiracy (1800) that first appeared in the Albany Evening Journal. The context of its publication is the more recent, more successful uprising led by Nat Turner in Southampton County earlier in the year.
  • October 21, 1831 – In “Gabriel’s Defeat,” the editors of the Richmond Enquirer seek to correct the facts in an article of the same title published in the Albany Evening Journal. The subject is Gabriel’s Conspiracy, an attempted slave uprising in 1800.
  • September 1862 – In the Atlantic Monthly, Thomas Wentworth Higginson publishes “Gabriel’s Defeat,” a history of the failed 1800 slave uprising.

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Haki Kweli Shakur 9-23-51ADM August Third Colletive NAPLA -New Afrikan Independence Movement – Provisional Government of The Republic of New Afrika – GJU – The Jericho Movement – MXGM

September 19th 1981 University Of Virginia Black Power Protest The Ronald Reagan Era Social Policies Crack Gun Era

fb_img_1474314488098(Black Power at University of Virginia) Students protest the Reagan/Ray Gun Era 1981 The Era of the 3rd wave of the War and Destruction on The Black Family/Nation I.e. The Crack Era /Gun Push /Poverty

Sept 19 1981 Protest Against Reagan Administration More than 300,000 demonstrators from labor and civil rights organizations protested the social policies of the Reagan administration in Solidarity Day march in Washington, D.C. #ReaganEra #SolidarityDay #UVA #DC #DMV #CrackEra #GunPush #Poverty #UnEmployment #Virginia

Haki Kweli Shakur 9-19-51ADM August Third Collective NAPLA NAIM

The New Afrikan Oath

_20160919_153313_20160917_221408The New Afrikan Oath

For the fruition of Black Power,

For the triumph of Black Nationhood,

i pledge to the Provisional Government

Republic of New Afrika

and to the building of a better people and a better world, my total

devotion, my total resources and the total power of my mortal

life.

Free the Land! and Win the War!

Slave Patrol Regulations Virginia – Carolinas ( Town of Tarboro North Carolina )

patrolPatrol Regulations & Rule Virginia & Carolinas

Rule 1: Slaves Shall Not Come in Town on Sabbath Day or in The Night Time Unless Its By Written Permission from their Owners, Masters, Mistresses.

Rule 2: No Slave After The Hour of 9 P.M. Shall be on The Streets or Absent From The Premises of his or her Owner, Master, Mistresses Unless with Written Permission.

Rule 3: If any Slave Shall Violate The Foregoing Rules The Patrol Shall Have Power and Shall Be Their Duty ( Any Two of Their Number Being Present ) to WHIP the Said Slave either at The Time of The Offence being Committed or Anytime within Three Months Thereafter, The Number of Stripes not to Exceed Fifthteen, unless the said slave is guilty of Insolent Behavior or Make His Escape from Patrol in either of which case the Stripes Shall not Exceed Thirty-Nine.

Slave Patrols: Law and Violence in Virginia and the Carolinas Sally E. Hadden examines the public regulation of slavery through slave patrols in Virginia and the Carolinas between the early eighteenth century and the Civil War. Hadden sets out the following goals: to “better understand how the laws of slavery actually applied to slaves” ; to “flesh out our understanding of how slave laws were actually enforced, day to day” ; to test the long-held, though unproven, view that patrols were composed of the poorest whites of Southern society” and to examine all of these questions comparatively across the South by focusing on the three eastern seaboard states that had the longest tradition of employing slave patrols and thus offer “a stable view of how patrols functioned through multiple decades, wars, and slave revolts” Hadden offers a well-written and thoroughly researched work that combines legal and social history to
address these questions.

Hadden begins her analysis with the founding of the colonies and finds that all three had similar motivations for establishing slave patrols. As slave populations increased and the threat of foreign invasion loomed, southerners saw a need for racial control above and beyond what individual slave owners could do. In other words, fear drove southerners to institute community policing in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, and continued to motivate them to refine, expand, and fund patrols through the Civil War. Due to its Caribbean influence, early black majority, and threats from Native Americans and the Spanish, South Carolina established the earliest formal patrols by 1704, followed by Virginia by 1727 and North Carolina by 1753. By the American Revolution, “the main contours of patrols became evident” and “remain[ed] largely unchanged until the Civil War.

September 17-18 1831 Proclamation Concerning Nat Turner – Governor Floyd

_20160918_174811_20160918_180152PROCLAMATION CONCERNING NAT TURNER BY GOVERNOR FLOYD, SEPTEMBER 17, 1831

On August 23, 1831, Governor John Floyd received a note from the Southampton County postmaster stating “that an insurrection of the slaves in that county had taken place, that several families had been massacred and that it would take a considerable military force to put them down.” At least fifty-five white people, many of them women and children, died before a massive force of militiamen and armed volunteers converged on the region and put down the insurrection. Angry white vigilantes killed dozens of slaves and drove hundreds of free persons of color into exile in the reign of terror that followed.

Early newspaper reports identified the Southampton insurgents as a leaderless mob of runaway slaves that rose out of the Dismal Swamp to wreak havoc on unsuspecting white families. Military leaders and others on the scene soon confirmed that the rebels were not runaways but slaves from local plantations. Reports of as many as 450 participants gave way to revised estimates of perhaps 60 armed men and boys, many of them coerced into joining. The confessions of prisoners and the interrogation of eyewitnesses pointed to a small group of ringleaders, one of which was an enslaved preacher by the name of Nat Turner. Attention focused on Turner; it was his “imagined spirit of prophecy” and his extraordinary powers of persuasion, local authorities reported, that had turned obedient slaves into bloodthirsty killers. Turner’s ability to elude capture for more than two months only enhanced his mythic stature.

While Turner remained at large, rumors of a wider slave conspiracy flourished. An abolitionist writer named Samuel Warner suggested that Turner had hidden himself in the Dismal Swamp with an army of runaways at his disposal. State officials took pains to ensure that Turner lived to stand trial by offering a $500 reward for his capture and delivery to jail. On October 30, 1831, Turner surrendered to a local farmer who found him hiding in a cave. Local planter and lawyer Thomas R. Gray interviewed Turner in his jail cell, recorded his “Confessions,” and published them as a pamphlet shortly after Turner was tried, convicted, and executed. Turner insisted that God had given him a sign to act, that he had shared his plans with only a few trusted followers, and that he knew nothing of any wider conspiracy extending beyond the Southampton County area. Certified as authentic by six local magistrates and said to be authorized by Turner himself, the “Confessions” became the definitive but controversial source for nearly all subsequent accounts of the event.

Turner’s revolt prompted a prolonged debate in the Virginia General Assembly. While many statesmen adhered to the Jeffersonian idea that the ending of slavery was desirable, no coherent plan for eventual abolition emerged. In fact, Virginia’s sponsorship of colonization to Africa, a popular solution to the problem, in reality became simply a way to remove free blacks, who were thought to be a bad influence on slaves. Instead of advocating freedom for slaves, some prominent Virginians developed a positive argument for slavery’s good based on their readings of the Bible and classical history. As a result of Turner’s actions, Virginia’s legislators enacted more laws to limit the activities of African Americans, both free and enslaved. The freedom of slaves to communicate and congregate was directly attacked. No one could assemble a group of African Americans to teach reading or writing, nor could anyone be paid to teach a slave. Preaching by slaves and free blacks was forbidden.

 

 

Haki Kweli Shakur 9-18-51ADM August Third Collective Communist NAPLA NAIM Amazons , PGRNA , The Jericho Movement, MXGM, George Jackson University

September 18 1850 Fugitive Slave Act Origin of Prison Industrial Complex – Slave Patrols to Police

_20160918_163057_20160918_160237Fugitive Slave Act
1850

The Fugitive Slave Act was part of the group of laws referred to as the “Compromise of 1850.” In this compromise, the antislavery advocates gained the admission of California as a free state, and the prohibition of slave-trading in the District of Columbia. The slavery party received concessions with regard to slaveholding in Texas and the passage of this law. Passage of this law was so hated by abolitionists, however, that its existence played a role in the end of slavery a little more than a dozen years later. This law also spurred the continued operation of the fabled Undergound Railroad, a network of over 3,000 homes and other “stations” that helped escaping slaves travel from the southern slave-holding states to the northern states and Canada.

BE IT enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the persons who have been, or may hereafter be, appointed commissioners, in virtue of any act of Congress, by the Circuit Courts of the United States, and Who, in consequence of such appointment, are authorized to exercise the powers that any justice of the peace, or other magistrate of any of the United States, may exercise in respect to offenders for any crime or offense against the United States, by arresting, imprisoning, or bailing the same under and by the virtue of the thirty-third section of the act of the twenty-fourth of September seventeen hundred and eighty-nine, entitled “An Act to establish the judicial courts of the United States” shall be, and are hereby, authorized and required to exercise and discharge all the powers and duties conferred by this act.

SEC. 2. And be it further enacted, That the Superior Court of each organized Territory of the United States shall have the same power to appoint commissioners to take acknowledgments of bail and affidavits, and to take depositions of witnesses in civil causes, which is now possessed by the Circuit Court of the United States; and all commissioners who shall hereafter be appointed for such purposes by the Superior Court of any organized Territory of the United States, shall possess all the powers, and exercise all the duties, conferred by law upon the commissioners appointed by the Circuit Courts of the United States for similar purposes, and shall moreover exercise and discharge all the powers and duties conferred by this act.

SEC. 3. And be it further enacted, That the Circuit Courts of the United States shall from time to time enlarge the number of the commissioners, with a view to afford reasonable facilities to reclaim fugitives from labor, and to the prompt discharge of the duties imposed by this act.

SEC. 4. And be it further enacted, That the commissioners above named shall have concurrent jurisdiction with the judges of the Circuit and District Courts of the United States, in their respective circuits and districts within the several States, and the judges of the Superior Courts of the Territories, severally and collectively, in term-time and vacation; shall grant certificates to such claimants, upon satisfactory proof being made, with authority to ake and remove such fugitives from service or labor, under the restrictions herein contained, to the State or Territory from which such persons may have escaped or fled.

SEC. 5. And be it further enacted, That it shall be the duty of all marshals and deputy marshals to obey and execute all warrants and precepts issued under the provisions of this act, when to them directed; and should any marshal or deputy marshal refuse to receive such warrant, or other process, when tendered, or to use all proper means diligently to execute the same, he shall, on conviction thereof, be fined in the sum of one thousand dollars, to the use of such claimant, on the motion of such claimant, by the Circuit or District Court for the district of such marshal; and after arrest of such fugitive, by such marshal or his deputy, or whilst at any time in his custody under the provisions of this act, should such fugitive escape, whether with or without the assent of such marshal or his deputy, such marshal shall be liable, on his official bond, to be prosecuted for the benefit of such claimant, for the full value of the service or labor of said fugitive in the State, Territory, or District whence he escaped: and the better to enable the said commissioners, when thus appointed, to execute their duties faithfully and efficiently, in conformity with the requirements of the Constitution of the United States and of this act, they are hereby authorized and empowered, within their counties respectively, to appoint, in writing under their hands, any one or more suitable persons, from time to time, to execute all such warrants and other process as may be issued by them in the lawful performance of their respective duties; with authority to such commissioners, or the persons to be appointed by them, to execute process as aforesaid, to summon and call to their aid the bystanders, or posse comitatus of the proper county, when necessary to ensure a faithful observance of the clause of the Constitution referred to, in conformity with the provisions of this act; and all good citizens are hereby commanded to aid and assist in the prompt and efficient execution of this law, whenever their services may be required, as aforesaid, for that purpose; and said warrants shall run, and be executed by said officers, any where in the State within which they are issued.

SEC. 6. And be it further enacted, That when a person held to service or labor in any State or Territory of the United States, ha: heretofore or shall hereafter escape into another State or Territory of the United States, the person or persons to whom such service 01 labor may be due, or his, her, or their agent or attorney, duly authorized, by power of attorney, in writing, acknowledged and certified under the seal of some legal officer or court of the State or Territory in which the same may be executed, may pursue and reclaim such fugitive person, either by procuring a warrant from some one of the courts, judges, or commissioners aforesaid, of the proper circuit, district, or county, for the apprehension of such fugitive from service or labor, or by seizing and arresting such fugitive, where the same can be done without process, and by taking, or causing such person to be taken, forthwith before such court, judge, or commissioner, whose duty it shall be to hear and determine the case of such claimant in a summary manner; and upon satisfactory proof being made, by deposition or affidavit, in writing, to be taken and certified by such court, judge, or commissioner, or by other satisfactory testimony, duly taken and certified by some court, magistrate, justice of the peace, or other legal officer authorized to administer an oath and take depositions under the laws of the State or Territory from which such person owing service or labor may have escaped, with a certificate of such magistracy or other authority, as aforesaid, with the seal of the proper court or officer thereto attached, which seal shall be sufficient to establish the competency of the proof, and with proof, also by affidavit, of the identity of the person whose service or labor is claimed to be due as aforesaid, that the person so arrested does in fact owe service or labor to the person or persons claiming him or her, in the State or Territory from which such fugitive may have escaped as aforesaid, and that said person escaped, to make out and deliver to such claimant, his or her agent or attorney, a certificate setting forth the substantial facts as to the service or labor due from such fugitive to the claimant, and of his or her escape from the State or Territory in which he or she was arrested, with authority to such claimant, or his or her agent or attorney, to use such reasonable force and restraint as may be necessary, under the circumstances of the case, to take and remove such fugitive person back to the State or Territory whence he or she may have escaped as aforesaid. In no trial or hearing under this act shall the testimony of such alleged fugitive be admitted in evidence; and the certificates in this and the first [fourth] section mentioned, shall be conclusive of the right of the person or persons in whose favor granted, to remove such fugitive to the State or Territory from which he escaped, and shall prevent all molestation of such person or persons by any process issued by any court, judge, magistrate, or other person whomsoever.

SEC. 7. And be it further enacted, That any person who shall knowingly and willingly obstruct, hinder, or prevent such claimant, his agent or attorney, or any person or persons lawfully assisting him, her, or them, from arresting such a fugitive from service or labor, either with or without process as aforesaid, or shall rescue, or attempt to rescue, such fugitive from service or labor, from the custody of such claimant, his or her agent or attorney, or other person or persons lawfully assisting as aforesaid, when so arrested, pursuant to the authority herein given and declared; or shall aid, abet, or assist such person so owing service or labor as aforesaid, directly or indirectly, to escape from such claimant, his agent or attorney, or other person or persons legally authorized as aforesaid; or shall harbor or conceal such fugitive, so as to prevent the discovery and arrest of such person, after notice or knowledge of the fact that such person was a fugitive from service or labor as aforesaid, shall, for either of said offences, be subject to a fine not exceeding one thousand dollars, and imprisonment not exceeding six months, by indictment and conviction before the District Court of the United States for the district in which such offence may have been committed, or before the proper court of criminal jurisdiction, if committed within any one of the organized Territories of the United States; and shall moreover forfeit and pay, by way of civil damages to the party injured by such illegal conduct, the sum of one thousand dollars for each fugitive so lost as aforesaid, to be recovered by action of debt, in any of the District or Territorial Courts aforesaid, within whose jurisdiction the said offence may have been committed.

Sec. 8. And be it further enacted, That the marshals, their deputies, and the clerks of the said District and Territorial Courts, shall be paid, for their services, the like fees as may be allowed for similar services in other cases; and where such services are rendered exclusively in the arrest, custody, and delivery of the fugitive to the claimant, his or her agent or attorney, or where such supposed fugitive may be discharged out of custody for the want of sufficient proof as aforesaid, then such fees are to be paid in whole by such claimant, his or her agent or attorney; and in all cases where the proceedings are before a commissioner, he shall be entitled to a fee of ten dollars in full for his services in each case, upon the delivery of the said certificate to the claimant, his agent or attorney; or a fee of five dollars in cases where the proof shall not, in the opinion of such commissioner, warrant such certificate and delivery, inclusive of all services incident to such arrest and examination, to be paid, in either case, by the claimant, his or her agent or attorney. The person or persons authorized to execute the process to be issued by such commissioner for the arrest and detention of fugitives from service or labor as aforesaid, shall also be entitled to a fee of five dollars each for each person he or they may arrest, and take before any commissioner as aforesaid, at the instance and request of such claimant, with such other fees as may be deemed reasonable by such commissioner for such other additional services as may be necessarily performed by him or them; such as attending at the examination, keeping the fugitive in custody, and providing him with food and lodging during his detention, and until the final determination of such commissioners; and, in general, for performing such other duties as may be required by such claimant, his or her attorney or agent, or commissioner in the premises, such fees to be made up in conformity with the fees usually charged by the officers of the courts of justice within the proper district or county, as near as may be practicable, and paid by such claimants, their agents or attorneys, whether such supposed fugitives from service or labor be ordered to be delivered to such claimant by the final determination of such commissioner or not.

SEC. 9. And be it further enacted, That, upon affidavit made by the claimant of such fugitive, his agent or attorney, after such certificate has been issued, that he has reason to apprehend that such fugitive will be rescued by force from his or their possession before he can be taken beyond the limits of the State in which the arrest is made, it shall be the duty of the officer making the arrest to retain such fugitive in his custody, and to remove him to the State whence he fled, and there to deliver him to said claimant, his agent, or attorney. And to this end, the officer aforesaid is hereby authorized and required to employ so many persons as he may deem necessary to overcome such force, and to retain them in his service so long as circumstances may require. The said officer and his assistants, while so employed, to receive the same compensation, and to be allowed the same expenses, as are now allowed by law for transportation of criminals, to be certified by the judge of the district within which the arrest is made, and paid out of the treasury of the United States.

SEC. 10. And be it further enacted, That when any person held to service or labor in any State or Territory, or in the District of Columbia, shall escape therefrom, the party to whom such service or labor shall be due, his, her, or their agent or attorney, may apply to any court of record therein, or judge thereof in vacation, and make satisfactory proof to such court, or judge in vacation, of the escape aforesaid, and that the person escaping owed service or labor to such party. Whereupon the court shall cause a record to be made of the matters so proved, and also a general description of the person so escaping, with such convenient certainty as may be; and a transcript of such record, authenticated by the attestation of the clerk and of the seal of the said court, being produced in any other State, Territory, or district in which the person so escaping may be found, and being exhibited to any judge, commissioner, or other officer authorized by the law of the United States to cause persons escaping from service or labor to be delivered up, shall be held and taken to be full and conclusive evidence of the fact of escape, and that the service or labor of the person escaping is due to the party in such record mentioned. And upon the production by the said party of other and further evidence if necessary, either oral or by affidavit, in addition to what is contained in the said record of the identity of the person escaping, he or she shall be delivered up to the claimant. And the said court, commissioner, judge, or other person authorized by this act to grant certificates to claimants or fugitives, shall, upon the production of the record and other evidences aforesaid, grant to such claimant a certificate of his right to take any such person identified and proved to be owing service or labor as aforesaid, which certificate shall authorize such claimant to seize or arrest and transport such person to the State or Territory from which he escaped: Provided, That nothing herein contained shall be construed as requiring the production of a transcript of such record as evidence as aforesaid. But in its absence the claim shall be heard and determined upon other satisfactory proofs, competent in law.

Approved, September 18, 1850

Was The West Afrikan Zingh Empire & Tyru Afrik Real , Myth, or Legend? ( West Afrikan DNA is The Oldest on Earth )

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A study of the area from Senegal Atlantic coast in the West to Dafur in the East and from Cameroon in the South to the northern part of Chad, was once part of a great super-civilization called the ‘Zingh Empire.’ According to historians and anthropolotists, the Zingh Empire covered an area in what is the Sahara Desert and West Africa, however it spread as far as India.

The Zingh Empire is said to have been in existence about 15,000B.C. and was ruled by the God-King, Tyru Afrik. The Zingh Empire was the first universal civilization because it was from there that all other civilizations became inspired when Black Africans from Zingh migrated to the Americas, Mediterranean, Greece, India, SE Asia, China, Japan, Melanesia, the Americas and elsewhere.

In fact, when one looks at all prehistoric and ancient monuments in places like Mesopotamia, India, Southern Europe/Greece, China, Japan and the Americas (Mexico to South America, the Mississippi Valley), one finds the exact type of structures that were built by Africans in the Sahara, West Africa, Egypt and Sudan.

The manner of stone carvings of human faces – OF WHICH HTE MOST ANCIENT ARE AFRICAN/NEGRO FEATURES — ARE THE SAME WHETHER IN MEXICO, NIGERIA, SUDAN, INDIA, CHINA OR JAPAN. The stype of carving from a large number of blocks is identical. The use of copper plugs to keep huge blocks together in Egypt and Nubia is the same in THE INCA BUILDINGS IN PERU.

Added to that, all the regions above show African faced carvings. Ancient stone monuments in Egypt, Mesopotamia, India, SE Asia, Indonesia, China and Japan, and the Americas show NEGROID FEATURES — CONNECTED TO PEOPLEIN WEST AFRICA AND SUDAN, AND EGYPT BEFORE THE Semite’ occupation. There are stories hat can be written and movies made about great KINGS AND QUEENS FROM MECI (3113 B.C.) to Tyru Afrik ( 15,000 B.C.), the God-King who had the first empire on earth and was the first to use the red, black and green flag from Senegal to India –the entire ETHIOPIAN EMPIRE OF PREHISTORIC TIMES AND THE FOUNDER OF GLOBAL CIVILZATION, AND THE SPREAD OF THE ‘RED AND BLACK’ POTTERY STYLE.

But however in recent research from scholars like my shero and now a ancestor Igbo Catherine Acholuno and Eze NGA Sidney Davis and other great not talked about historians and Archaeologist from West Afrika that West Afrika is engulfed in Rich Pre dynastic Cikam/Egypt history that in fact West Afrika is the origin of alotta Afrikan civilizations from  west to central south afrika to east and north afrika and beyond Afrika’s borders , matter of fact West Afrika has the oldest DNA on Earth including The Igbo and Their Ancient Ancestors , Igbo Ukwu is also the oldest land according to archaeological evidence that’s been unearthed and suppressed for decades in Nigeria and Niger to Cameroon and Chad these areas prove that this is facts,  the Descendants in The United States Should be very proud of being Descendants of West Afrika because West Afrika’s Story is Just Starting to Be told you are in fact descendants of the oldest blood lines on earth check my video out on the belove Chieftess Catherine Acholonu i want my generation and younger to get to know her im very happy that i share the same birthday with her October 26 scorpios so this must be her spirit speaking through me to help bring awareness to her work Rest in Peace Great Mother !!!!  Haki Kweli Shakur 9-17-51ADM August Third Collective NAPLA NAIM FTL Igbo Kwenu to My Igbo & Biafra Peoples , Blood lines and Ancestors!  VIRGINIA-IGBOLAND

 

The Bloody South Carolina Racial Violence on New Afrikans ( Bloody September Riots 1876 Ellenton /Charleston )

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By September, Charleston seethed with political activity. Following two Democratic meetings earlier in the week in which blacks explained why they had left the Republican Party, on the night of September 6 in Charleston, a black Democratic club held a meeting at Archer’s Hall on King Street. Two black speakers, including J.R. Jenkins, criticized the Republicans, including an insult to black women. After the meeting white Democrats escorted the last speaker from the meeting, and they were followed by Republicans who had heard the speech. The whites fired a pistol above the heads of gathering black Republicans but that attracted more African Americans, and fighting started. US troops escorted the black Democrats to safety, but the whites and police were outnumbered and could not quell the mob. Blacks continued to roam, looting on King Street and nearby, as the outnumbered police (a mixed group racially) could not quell their activity. They were escorted safely to The Citadel grounds at Marion Square. Unusually, more whites than blacks were injured in this riot; the one white death was attributed to a mistaken shot by a white man.

No Democratic rifle clubs intervened that evening after consultation with the police; they feared provoking a larger riot. Their officers met the next day, making a plan to have rifle clubs available at short notice every night when political meetings were held. Tensions remained high in the city. but their officers met the next day, and guns for sale in the city were quickly gone. Two nights later the Democrats met at Hibernian Hall without incident. The inability of Governor Chamberlain and the local law authorities to preserve the peace convinced the people of the state of the failure of Republican rule. Southerners portrayed the actions of freedmen as menacing, trying to win over public opinion in the North. Northerners found the continuing insurgency in the southern states to be disheartening. Historian Ehren K. Foley noted that the event “demonstrated the continued mobilization and strength of both the Republican party and the African American community in the low country of South Carolina. The event also demonstrated the willingness of both sides to deploy force for political ends.”

Ellenton Riot

The Ellenton riot was reported to have started near Silverton in Aiken County. On September 15, Mrs. Alonzo Harley said two black men tried to attack her while her husband was working in the fields, but she grabbed her gun and drove them away. White citizens tracked down a man, Peter Williams, who was taken to the Hartleys for identification. When he tried to get away he was shot, but when Mrs. Hartley saw him, she said he was not the man who attacked her. Williams died of his wounds about a week later. While the incident was initially portrayed as racially based, it was connected to several other violent political incidents in the weeks before the 1876 election, in which white paramilitary groups in support of Democrats tried to suppress black Republican voting.

A warrant was issued for the arrest of Fred Pope, supposedly Williams’ accomplice. A posse of 14 white men was formed the next day. Pope was defended at Rouse’s Bridge by armed black men, and the whites retreated. By September 18, it was reported that 500-600 white men from Augusta and Columbia County, Georgia, members of rifle clubs or paramilitary groups, had entered the area. They attacked part of the Port Royal Railroad tracks, tearing up a portion. The white mobs spread out and killed freedmen working in fields, or hunted down or on the street. The official record of Deputy US Marshalls indicated between 25 and 30 black men were killed.[9] A New York Times reporter in an article stated as many as 100 blacks were killed in the conflicts, which extended to September 21, with several whites wounded.

At the trial of some black men in May 1877, numerous witnesses testified that the whites had repeatedly said “they intended to carry the election [of 1876] if they had to wade in blood up to their saddle girths. Other testimony said that many of the white men involved were from Georgia and had openly said they had come into South Carolina to try to win the election of Wade Hampton III. This incident has not received as much attention from historians as other events of this period, such as the Hamburg Massacre, which occurred in Aiken County in July, perhaps because of the confusion as to the events, the duration of the troubles, and the total casualties.

Haki kweli Shakur 9-15-51ADM
August Third Collective NAPLA NAIM AMAZONS