The Pontiac 17 The Day of Rebellion ( Gang up on Oppression Manifested) BOS

THE TRUE MEANING OF B.O.S. was a movement created by the “Pontiac 17”. They were a group of high ranking leaders charged with starting a prison riot at the Pontiac Correctional Center (July 22, 1978) that left 3 jail workers dead and 3 others injured. The riot happened because the jail was over populated and had major inhumane conditions. The “Pontiac 17” were put on death row. Students from various universities and activists fought for the “Pontiac 17” to be taken off of death row because the riot wasn’t solely their fault. The brothers of the “Pontiac 17” banded together and created the movement BROTHERS OF THE STRUGGLE and would write it on letters to their families and friends. Although they were leaders of various gangs/tribes they united and became B.O.S. BROTHERS OF the STRUGGLE! All 17 men were found not guilty and taken off death row❗ Below are the names of the “Pontiac 17”.
1) Larry Hoover (Gangster Disciple)
2) Benny Lee (Apache Vice Lord/Insane Vice Lord)
3) John “Bay” Bailey (Black Gangster Disciple)
4) Michael “Bosco” Evans (Black Soul)
5) Anthony “Hop” Gilberry (Conservative Vice Lord)
6) Robert “Wheaty” Harris (Original Black Gangster)
7) Jessie Hill (Gangster Disciple)
😎 Albert “Omega” Jackson (Black P. Stone Ranger/Black Nationalist)
9) Ernest “Smokey EL” Jackson (EL RUKN)
10) Stephen “Tuffy” Mars (Unknown Vice Lord)
11) David “Prince Dinky” McConnell (Conservative Vice Lord)
12) Ronnie Newby (Black Gangster/New Breed) son of Booney “The Don” Black
13) William “Gaylord” Ozzie (Cobra/Insane Vice Lord)
14) Angelo Robinson (Original Mad Black Soul)
15) Joe Smith (Original Mad Black Soul)
16) Kevin “Wolf” Tolbert (Gangster Black Soul)
17) Ike “King Ike” Taylor (High Supreme Gangster/Black Gangster Disciple Nation) he started Gangster Disciple on the West Side of Chicago. These are the men who created B.O.S. BROTHERS OF the STRUGGLE. May we remain united in peace. STOP THE VIOLENCE!

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Larry’s influence would rapidly grow behind bars, making the GDs the most formidable gang inside the Illinois prison system. Thus, in 1978 a major prison riot in IDOC erupts at Pontiac prison: and, yes, the GD’s were heavily involved; some say Larry Hoover even masterminded the entire prison riot.

Three correctional officers were killed in the 1978 riot. Larry Hoover was indicted, but charges had to be dropped against him, because no one would testify against Larry Hoover at that time.

In 1979 the one and only assassination attempt was made against Larry Hoover by gang member named “Nissan”, he was a Black Gangster (the BG’s are a third derivative gang from the original Devil’s Disciples). The attempt to kill Larry Hoover involved using a homosexual to stab him, but it did not succeed, and the homosexual inmate died violently.

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On April 23, 1973, a brawl broke out involving 100 inmates using homemade knives, cleaning utensils and metal trays as weapons in the mess hall at the correctional center. By the time tear gas was fired, two inmates were stabbed and killed. According to Time Magazine, this fight was due to the many gangs that had been sent to the prison from the Chicago streets.

On July 22, 1978, one of the deadliest riots in Illinois prison history broke out involving over 1,000 inmates. The riot began around 9:45 in the morning when 600 prisoners were returning to the cell house on the north end of the prison from the recreational yard. Armed with shanks, prisoners attacked officers inside the cell house. According to investigators, prison gangs directed the attack to challenge Warden Thaddeus Pinkney. Soon after the local and state police arrived and fired eight rounds of tear gas into the prison yard. Prisoners set buildings on fire causing the other prisoners to get involved. After many hours, the troops got all inmates back into their cells. A lieutenant, William Thomas, and two correctional officers, Robert Conkle and Stanley Cole, were killed while three correctional officers, Danny Dill, Dale Walker and Sharon Pachet, were injured.

Immediately a “deadlock” system was put into effect until October 16, 1978. Prisoners were not allowed to leave their cells for any reason. Their meals were brought to them; all recreational time and work assignments were cancelled. The prisoners were not allowed to shower until October; family visits were banned until October 14 and they were not allowed to make phone calls to their families until September 30. The officials of the prison began searching the prisoners for weapons on October 2 and ended October 13.

A complaint from the prisoners went to the district court on August 31 stating the “deadlock” was taking longer than it was needed. The district judge took this into consideration, but then decided to wait until after the “shakedown” to make any decisions. After the shakedown, on November 3, the court ordered Pontiac Correctional Center to restore the family visitation hours and phone privileges just as they were before the riot, as well as the meals, exercise and work times. The court also required the prison to provide two hours of yard recreation a week to the prisoners.[

Because of this riot, the prison now allows only a few inmates to be moved at a time in a line, and as of 1997, prisoners in the maximum security unit are kept in their cell every hour of the day with exception of days they are allowed yard recreation, law library, showers, and visits.

More recently, with the reintroduction of general population to Pontiac Correctional Center, inmates not in segregation status are given more out of cell time and social time on rec yards, in the gym, and at dining times. Protective custody and inmates from the medium security unit are also able to obtain jobs within the prison ranging from cellhouse porter to lawn care to vehicle maintenance. In addition, inmates of all confinement statuses may participate in mental health and medical “groups”. Pontiac CC also has church services and the protective custody unit has its own inmate choir.

Haki Kweli Shakur 3-28-52ADM ATC-NAPLA NAIM

Gang-Up” on Oppression Youth/Street orgs struggle for power in oppressed communities -Haki Shakur

 

Fon/Ewe Great Mother Mawu The Moon 🌙 Vodoun

Mawu’s themes are creativity, Universal Law, passion, abundance, birth, and inspiration. Her symbols are clay and the moon. Mawu arrives on an elephant’s back, expectant with spring’s creative energy. Hers is a wise passion and a timely birth, being ruled by natural laws and universal order. In Africa, She is a lunar-aligned creatrix who made people from clay. As a mother figure, Mawu inspires the universe’s abundance and every dreamers imagination.

Rituals for Mawu rejoice in Her life-giving energy, often through lovemaking. In Africa, people take this seed generation literally and sow the fields, knowing that Mawu will make the land fertile. So get yourself a seedling today and bring it into the house to welcome Mawu and Her creative powers. Name the sprout after one of Mawu’s attributes that you want to cultivate. Each time you water or tend the plant, repeat its name and accept Mawu’s germinating energy into your spirit.

Alternatively, get some non-hardening clay and begin fashioning a symbol of what you need. Devote yourself to spending time on this over twenty-eight days (a lunar cycle), until it’s complete. Each time you work, say:

‘Mother Mawu, make me whole
Help me obtain my sacred goal.’

By the time this is finished, you should see the first signs of manifestation.”

(Patricia Telesco, “365 Goddess: a daily guide to the magic and inspiration of the goddess”.)

In Dahomey mythology, Mawu, (pronounced MAH-woo) and sometimes alternatively spelled Mahu, is a West African Mother Earth creator Goddess associated with both the sun and moon. She is the Goddess of the night, of joy, and of motherhood as well as the ruler of the world’s wisdom and knowledge. She is the one who brings the cool nights to the hot African world. Sometimes She is seen as a moon Goddess, the twin sister-wife of the sun god Lisa (alternatively spelled Liza), but sometimes “She” is seen as one androgynous or hermaphroditic deity, Mawu-Lisa. Mahu and Lisa are the children of Nana Buluku, and are the parents of Xevioso

After creating the earth and all life and everything else on it, She became concerned that it might be too heavy, so She asked the primeval serpent, Aido Hwedo, to curl up beneath the earth and thrust it up in the sky. When She asked Awe, a monkey She had also created, to help out and make some more animals out of clay, he boasted to the other animals and challenged Mawu. Gbadu, the first woman Mawu had created, saw all the chaos on earth and told her children to go out among the people and remind them that only Mawu can give Sekpoli – the breath of life. Gbadu instructed her daughter, Minona, to go out among the people and teach them about the use of palm kernels as omens from Mawu. When Awe, the arrogant monkey climbed up to the heavens to try to show Mawu that he too could give life, he failed miserably. Mawu made him a bowl of porridge with the seed of death in it and reminded him that only She could give life and that She could also take it away.

 

Haki Kweli Shakur 3-27-52ADM ATC-NAPLA NAIM

Natural Tahuti (Free Tahuti) , Vodou The Oldest on Earth, Mawu Lisa, Mama Zogbe, – Haki Kweli Shakur

 

 

Vodou (Vodoun) Palm Oil , Egyptian Vodou HEKA , Vodou Existed Before Ancient Egypt

Although the exact origins of Voodoo are unknown at different points there were Voodoo related systems since African Origins of Humanity Ancient South Africa Central Africa is no doubt where it began before all the periods of ethiopia and Egyptian Dynasties but it is generally agreed that this religion has its Name roots in West Africa. Modern day Benin is regarded as the birth place of this religion, and the name ‘Voodoo’ itself means ‘spirit’ in the local Fon language. It has been suggested that Voodoo in West Africa evolved from the ancient traditions of ancestor worship and animism. The forms of Voodoo practiced today, however, are the results of one of the most inhuman episodes in modern history – the African slave trade that took place between the 16 th and 19 th centuries.

Palm Oil Offerings

Palm Oil/Epó Epo is Palm oil. It is derived from the fruit of the oil palms, primarily the African oil palm. Palm oil is not the same thing as palm kernal oil. Palm kernal oil is derived from the kernal of the same fruit and it is not the same color as palm oil because it does not have a high beat-carotene content like palm oil.

Palm oil is commonly used for spiritual purposes. To understand the nature of palm oil, one can simply observe its qualities. For instance, if one were to touch the surface of palm oil they could feel that it has a very smooth texture. This smooth texture is one of the key uses for palm oil in spiritual work. When offered to an energy or orisha that one is working with it is offered to assist with smoothing the road ahead, or smoothing transitions so that the road ahead is void of obstacles or unforeseen challenges that could arise.

Palm oil also had a red color which represents virility and swift action. Offering palm oil will assist with making one’s affirmed prayers to manifest much sooner than later. Palm oil is a common staple in a spirit worker’s medicine bag and is often used as offerings to most Lwa like Ogu/Ogou orisha including Esu and Ogun however it is not recommended to offer palm oil to Obatala.

ANCIENT EGYPTIAN MAGIC & RITUAL
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Ancient Egyptian magic was part of religious and medical practices, as well as forms of personal voodoo. But before we get into details, we need to first define what we mean by magic.

HEKA & THE FORCE
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The term the ancient Egyptians used to describe magic is “heka”.

Heka was believed to be a natural force that is present throughout the universe, it was used by the creator to create and animate the world.

Heka is personified in a god of the same name, who is thought to have predated all dual creation, since of course the force he personified is what was used to create the world.

It was also believed to be available for use by both Gods and mortals. Egyptians used it mainly as a means to ward off the forces of evil. They also used it for personal gain – to influence others by casting love spells for example, or even to cause harm to enemies.

However, almost all religious rituals were considered a type of magic. The symbolic meaning of the practices was thought to have influenced the Gods and the forces of nature.

Most rituals included the incantation of spells. Spells consisted of two parts – the words to be spoken and the actions to be followed. Words and names had to be pronounced correctly.

USES OF ANCIENT EGYPTIAN MAGIC
Ancient Egyptian magic was used for many, many things. But the most common uses were:

Protection
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The ancient Egyptians believed that there are evil forces that could do harm and damage. These forces could come from demons, angry gods, or even people using black magic and curses. Protection against these forces came in the form of magic rituals, practices and the wearing of amulets to keep them at bay.

Also, protection was used during sensitive moments like childbirth and during the soul’s journey through the underworld. For example, the ritual of the Opening of the Mouth ceremony.

Healing – Medicine or Magic?

The ancient Egyptians were plagued with many diseases and health hazards such as Nile parasites and respiratory problems from the sandy environment.

And although for an ancient culture its medical practices were quite advanced (with some techniques still in use today), they were at a loss with much of the ailments. Some health problems were attributed to Godly wrath or harmful spells – and thus they would turn to magic for help.

The priests who were versed in incantations and trained medically would then be enlisted for help with many medical problems. The priests would then use a combination of medical practices and magical rituals to aid healing.

It’s like an ancient Egyptian version of complimentary medicine.

The spells and speeches were aimed at certain Gods or Goddesses, mainly those who were closely connected to medicine such as:

Thoth the God associated with writing, including the writing of healing texts.

Sekhmet the Goddess of the plague.

Selqet the scorpion Goddess whom you could pray to help with bites and venom.

Some techniques the priests used were:

To act out a myth with the patient by reciting speeches and spells. Using substances such as honey or dung to lure out or repel demons that possessed patients. Inscribing protective and healing spells on statues and amulets.

OTHER TECHNIQUES OF ANCIENT
EGYPTIAN MAGIC
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Ancient Egyptian Magic – Sistrum
Potions, Wands, Dolls and Dances
Using magic wands to summon powerful beings or drawing protective circles.
Making loud noises by stamping the feet and shouting – performing a sort of magical dance with drums and sistra. These would help drive away evil spirits.
Using special bowls with written spells that transform water into a healing potion to be drunk or washed with. Some potions were made with ingredients like animal blood. Making wax figures of people to use like voodoo dolls. Either to harm or curse enemies.

PRIEST OR MAGICIAN? Ancient Egyptian Magic – Priest
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Although the average Egyptian could practice magic, the formal practitioners were the priests. The priesthood gave them access to magical texts and temple rituals which are off limits to others. It even gave them access to healing magic that was used when no medical cure was available.

The magical texts were studies by lector priests, who would then gain vast knowledge in performing spells for protection, rebirth and healing.

Whatever the case, priests had to be in a state of purity before performing any magic or religious ritual. They would bathe and adorn fresh clothing, abstain from sex, and avoid contact with menstruating women.

If you think about it, the ancient Egyptian idea of what magic is (to make things happen) means that we still practice magic to a certain extent today. Of course most of us don’t follow their techniques, but many of us believe in the power of faith and mind over matter.

Prayers and blessings could be considered a spiritual force to make things happen. And also the very old yet newly popular concept of “the law of attraction” (you attract what you think about the most) has become a widely accepted theory.

Ancient Egyptian Magic may have been quite superstitious in techniques, but the meaning behind it was not.

Ref Source

http://www.experience-ancient-egypt.com/egyptian-religion-mythology/egyptian-magic-and-ritual

Haki Kweli Shakur 3-23-52ADM ATCO NAPLA NAIM

 

 

Ancient South Africa History Suppressed /Spiritual Deities /Science /Sybolism

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Igbo Honor Our Nidichie ( ANCESTORS )

The Ndiichie (esteemed ancestor spirits) also held a high place in traditional Igbo society. Elders have always been revered in Igbo society, and even more so after they passed onto Be Mmuo (the land of the spirits). The Ndiichie would often be consulted to offer advice to their descendants and appeal to the Alusi on their behalf. Ndi Igbo have never worshiped their ancestors only venerated them, which is no different then what Catholics do to their saints or what every country does to its national heroes. Respect and honor for the Ndiichie was shown in one way by pouring of libations while chanting incantations. Ndi Igbo believed in the concept of reincarnation and felt that the Ndiichie often reincarnated back on Earth. In fact, all Mmadu (human beings) were believed to reincarnate seven or eight times, and that depending on your karma, one either ascends or descends into another spiritual plane” – Onyemobi

Ancestral veneration is a very ancient and common practice all over the world. The Igbo people have understood the importance of honoring the Ndichie (Venerated ancestors) in order for the civilization to survive and progress from times immemorial. One of the reasons Igbos and Africans in general are in a state of damnation is because we have forgotten how to honor our ancestors.

Instead of developing our own culture as a people, we see Western culture as superior to our own and trap ourselves in an inferiority complex. Yes despite hardcore resistance against the Atlantic slave trade, British colonialism, and the Nigerian genocide against our people we ended up losing. Yes our Civilizations collapsed. Yes Nigeria continues to discriminate and oppress Igbo people. We have suffered a lot and nobody shall ever down play that. However, until we remember to honor our ancestors, we will continue on the path of self destruction our enemies have planted for us.

The Igbo people are one of the most ancient groups in the world. Like most African groups and civilizations in ancient times had advanced human consciousness, culture, knowledge, creativity, leadership, philosophy, science, and etc. True civilizations respect, honor, and live in accordance to Nature. We once understood the oneness of the Source/Creator (Chineke) with Creation and our relationship with Nature (Ani).

We honored and respected Ani. That is why we had rich societies and collective democratic leadership that lived by justice, order, peace, unity, and balance. Our ancestors built many ancient civilizations such as the Ugwelle (6000 BCE), Afikpo (3000 BCE), Nsukka (3000 BCE), UmuEri/UmuNri dynasties (500 BCE), Igbo Ukwu (900 CE), and etc. We developed sophisticated architecture such as the Nsude pyramids in Agbaja, Mbari structures, and etc. Igbos developed writing scripts such as Uli, Aniocha writing systems, Nsidibi, Ikwu, and many more. The level of knowledge and scientific (especially metaphysics) discoveries and practices done by the Igbo Civilizations is most likely beyond our imagination. We have a long history of achievements.

In order for us Igbo people to really rebuild and progress, we must honor our ancestors. We shall not live exactly how our ancestors lived but revive the institutions they built that are applicable today and improve on it. How can you know what today and tomorrow will be if you don’t yesterday was? How can you know who you are if you don’t know who brought you here? The ancestors brought us here and as a mixture of all of them into one, we must know who they were to know who we are. We may say we are children of the ultimate source of all creation and life (Chineke). But through who are we children of Chineke? Who did Chineke give power to bring us into this world and gave life? The answer is our ancestors. Therefore, we must honor and respect them. To honor the ancestors is to honor ourselves and the ultimate ancestor/source of us all Chineke. Chi (God) Bless

Land of the Rising Sun ☀️

 

 

Afrikans in Cikam/Kemet/Ancient Egypt Practiced Voodoo to Build Pyramids , Universities and Shrines to Their Ancestors

👳🏾‍♀️🙇🏾🔭📿🔮 Dr Ben Mentions Voodoo – Now, lets take a quick look at Voodoo to see what Thales and other early Greek philosophers studied and learned from African priests. First of all, primary researcher, scholar and elder Dr. Yosef Ben Jochannan said that Voodoo has nothing to do with witchcraft. In his book, African Origins of Western Religion, Dr. Ben writes that “vodoo, vaudou, or vaudoux comes from the Dahomey in West Africa where it means genius, or protective spirits.”

Milo Rigaud writes in his book, “Secrets of Voodoo,” that “vo means introspection” and “du means into the unknown (into the mystery).”

What that all means is that Voodoo is creative force: it is a belief system joined in unison with religion. They are compiled together…always to be learned together to take advantage of the creative force. When we learn about that force we get math, science, arts, etc. The math, science, and arts are the outward expression of who we are inside. The Africans had mastered religion. And religion was the explanation of science. We didn’t separate religion from science. Europeans separated the two.

When we take an inward look into self we start to unravel life, which is the mystery. When we start to unravel that mystery we become a genius. So, Voodoo literally means that whenever you take an inward look at self, you become a genius. When the Africans of Kemet mastered Voodoo they built great pyramids, great temples, great universities and great shrines to their ancestors. That is why Thales encouraged his students to “Know Thyself.”

Therefore when you study self and grow to know yourself, you will build great civilizations based off of math, science and agriculture. It is already inside of you. It does not come out of the air. Knowing self does not come from spookism; it comes from hard work. Unraveling that mystery makes you a genius.

If you’re still wondering which god or gods this real black atheist believes in… understand that I don’t believe in a god. I study to know god. They are what our ancestors called MuKulu.

MuKulu is an African word and is the oldest etymology of the word god. MuKulu is intended to represent distance, the highest or height as in the sky or high achievement that comes along with age.

MuKulu is also intended to represent water which is linked to the sky in the form of rain that brings sustenance and prosperity to the community. (8)

When I use the word god, what I’m really expressing is MuKulu so that it speaks of someone who invested his or her time in building up and providing for the community. MuKulu is what our ancestors invented. It was their god concept.

The secondary meaning for MuKulu was a wise old elder, a great king or great queen or it was an ancestor. A child could not be MuKulu, because the word expresses distance or age. Those ancient Africans, our ancestors, said MuKulu before there was colonialism; before there were Greeks; before there were Persians; and before the Romans knew god as a wise old elder or as the oldest representative in their country.

This is how the original African people who invented the word god and its concept intended for them to represented. Not surprisingly, the oldest representations of god in art form are African and women. Our beloved women were at the center of the African culture because she gave birth to the community (children, science, writing, math, art, etc.) and to the workforce. Let’s take a look at some of the earliest depictions of African MuKulu – Brother Ankh VOODOO IS YOUR BIRTHRIGHT! #Divination #Kemet #Benin #WestAfrica #WestAfricanAncestry #Science #Nature #Universe #Elements #Priest #Priesthood

#Afa #Fa #Ifa #Iha #Candomblé #Obeah #Lucumi #Santeria #indigenousspiritualscience #ancientafricanspirituality #Umbanda #Quimbanda #Vodou #Voodoo #Vodun #ReturntoAfricanTraditions #NorthAfrica #Egypt #Pyramids

Ref Source https://amenrasquad.wordpress.com/tag/dr-yosef-ben-jochannan/

Haki Kweli Shakur ATCO-NAPLA NAIM

 

 

The James Jordan Lynching in Waverly, Virginia of March 20 1925 Leads to The Nations First Anti-Lynching Law

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WAVERLY — James Jordan died March 20, 1925, near the tracks that were Waverly’s link to the outside world.

“A train had just pulled into the station and a part of the lynching episode was visible from windows,” the Richmond Times-Dispatch reported.

His body fell to the ground after flames burned through the rope. A coroner’s jury met the next day to view the charred corpse, only to learn it had been stolen overnight and dumped in Windsor, about 25 miles away.

The incident would help lead to the first statewide anti-lynching law in the nation, but not before two other black men were killed by Virginia lynch mobs.

Now, an Alabama-based group is documenting lynching sites across Virginia and the South, with plans to erect historical markers starting next year and to begin an honest conversation about our nation’s history of lynchings.

“The trauma that was created by terrorizing people of color is not something that we’ve talked about. But it’s had a lasting impact on African-Americans and on the South as a region,” said Bryan Stevenson, founder the Equal Justice Initiative. “The mistrust that exists, the conflicts that emerge, and how quickly people are offended and unnerved have a lot to do with the fact that we haven’t talked truthfully.”

Lynching played a key role in a system that discriminated and brutally enforced laws against blacks, as well as economically exploited and disenfranchised them, after the Reconstruction era in the South.

Terror, said University of Virginia history professor Grace Elizabeth Hale, “is really the foundation of the whole system of segregation — without that violence, black people don’t concede their rights. That violence is what makes that happen.”

“Without understanding the role of violence, we cannot understand the full history and humanity of African-Americans who lived through this period,” Hale said.

The effects of segregation echo in Waverly today, but much has changed since 1925, when it was a more provincial community.

Trains still run through town, but U.S. 460 is now Waverly’s major lifeline — an undivided, two-lane highway that runs west to Petersburg and east to Norfolk, straight as an arrow through wetlands, billboard-studded fields, and stands of cut and uncut timber.

The one-stoplight, 2,149-resident town is the largest in Sussex County. The small but once-bustling downtown has several active businesses but also some vacant buildings with rundown storefronts.

Waverly has some well-kept residential areas, but many of the frame homes near downtown appear to be deteriorating. The Norfolk & Western Railway depot, once the town’s nucleus, was torn down long ago.

The old jail is used for police storage. “I can look right out my window and see it,” said Mayor Walter J. Mason, whose office is in the nearby Town Hall.

Mason, 66, a Waverly native and a graduate of segregated public schools, was elected the town’s first black mayor in 2010 and also serves as the town manager.

The lynching was a tragedy, Mason said, but “we have come a long way. I’m proud of my town. I’m proud of the race relations here now.

“I love my town, Waverly, I truly do. I want to see it prosper,” he said.

Waverly was founded in 1879. Its population today is roughly two-thirds black. The 1920 U.S. census did not provide a racial breakdown for towns but recorded that two-thirds of the 12,834 residents of Sussex County were black that year.

Whites, at the time of the lynching and since, are a minority in the area. The county’s population has declined and today the 2,500 inmates at two state prisons account for about one in every five residents.

A history of Waverly published in 1979 and a history on Sussex published in 2012 make no mention of the lynching — an event, like many lynchings, that led to front-page newspaper stories in Virginia and even in other states.

But it was rarely discussed. There are some in Waverly, even among those whose parents grew up there, who have no idea there was a lynching in their town.

“They didn’t talk about it much,” said Mason, who heard about the lynching from his parents. “Nobody talked about it much. It wasn’t a good time back then.”

On March 18, 1925, Waverly was a different community on a different path when, about 3:30 p.m., “a young white married woman” was “attacked” in her home while her husband was away. A distinctive pistol was taken from her by the assailant.

Newspaper accounts did not use the word “rape” or otherwise specify the nature of the attack, though historians say blacks were lynched for far less cause than rape.

The Times-Dispatch said posters bearing a description of the attacker were distributed by police. A foreman at the Gray lumber mill in Waverly told authorities that the description fit Jordan, a recently hired employee.

Police also determined that Jordan had given the pistol to “another negro.” Jordan was arrested at the lumber mill by Sheriff Thomas C. Fannin while he was changing shoes.

He was identified by the victim and taken to the jail around dusk. “Citizens gathered and the streets soon filled when news spread that the negro had been identified,” the newspaper reported.

“According to county officers, the circumstances of the attack had aroused an indignation throughout the county that could not be controlled when it became known this perpetrator of the crime had confessed.”

A Richmond News Leader story reported that Sussex Commonwealth’s Attorney Thomas H. Howerton promised that if the crowd dispersed, he would have a grand jury meet and if guilt was certain, “a trial and conviction could be had within hours.”

Howerton was ignored. “Practically every member of the mob was armed. They stood with shotguns and pistols aimed at the officers who guarded the prison in a bristling phalanx of weapons,” The News Leader reported.

“A double-barrel shotgun was thrust into Sheriff Fannin’s face and held there. The sheriff had eight or ten county officers besides those living in Waverly, at the jail, but they were powerless to hold back the mob.”

The jail door was battered in and the prisoner seized. “Jordan, trembling and begging for mercy, was dragged out into the street. The mob, still unmasked, paraded with him down the principal street.”

He was taken to a vacant lot said to be “a few feet from the railway depot” that current residents believe was across the tracks from the station.

“Jordan was strung up to the tree. Members of the mob fired at him as long as they pleased, and then set the body afire,” The News Leader recounted.

The Richmond newspapers reported that Howerton announced afterward that a grand jury would be summoned to investigate and indict anyone who had participated in the mob.

The next day, Gov. E. Lee Trinkle arrived in Waverly and “addressed an assemblage of citizens … admonished them to preserve order and deplored the fact that a mob had taken a human life in town without due process of law.”

“Virginia’s record has been virtually washed clean of mob actions,” Trinkle claimed in a Times-Dispatch report. “I exhort you that the name of the Commonwealth not be brought again into the limelight of such publicity as she has received from this occurrence,” added the governor.

But on March 27, 1925, The Waverly Dispatch, a weekly newspaper, ran an unapologetic editorial:

“As a result of the lynching, there has been an enormous amount of unfavorable publicity for Sussex County and the town of Waverly in particular, although it is likely that the same thing would have taken place in any other town or county in Virginia under similar provocation and circumstances.”

“Now that the lynching has taken place and cannot be recalled, it should, and perhaps will, serve as an object lesson to the colored men of the ‘black belt.’ ”

W. Fitzhugh Brundage, a University of North Carolina history professor, said there were 86 lynchings in Virginia from 1880 to 1927 — 70 blacks and 16 whites — the lowest toll among Southern states.

Jordan was lynched just 5 miles from Virginia’s current death row and 30 miles from the state’s execution chamber, one of the busiest in the country since the U.S. Supreme Court allowed executions to resume in 1976.

Brundage thinks there were fewer lynchings in Virginia than in other Southern states in part because Virginia moved toward speedy trials and used the state militia to protect suspects.

Virginia installed the South’s first electric chair in 1908, and executions were moved inside the walls of the Virginia State Penitentiary in Richmond instead of public hangings at courthouses around the state.

It was an effort by the state’s white elite to curb mob violence and the gruesome spectacle of public hangings deemed inconsistent with the seemly “Virginia way” that Trinkle and other Virginia elites were so concerned with preserving.

Howerton’s promise of a grand jury investigation notwithstanding, no one was ever prosecuted for the lynching in Waverly.

It was the failure of Waverly and Sussex officials to act that prompted Louis Jaffé, the then-editor of the Norfolk Virginian-Pilot, to look at state government as a way to end local mob law, said J. Douglas Smith, a former professor at Occidental College and now an independent scholar.

“There were fewer lynchings, but they were becoming increasingly savage and brutal and barbaric in nature,” Smith said. By the 1920s, Virginia was recognizing that lynching was bad for business, he said.

Smith, author of “Managing White Supremacy: Race, Politics and Citizenship in Jim Crow Virginia,” said that after two other brutal lynchings — one in Wytheville and another in Wise County — Jaffé persuaded Gov. Harry F. Byrd Sr. to consider making it a state crime.

The law, enacted in March 1928, enabled the Virginia attorney general to prosecute lynching participants as well as local authorities. It was never used against whites for lynching a black, but it was the first such law in the country.

Source/Ref Richmond.com

http://www.richmond.com/news/virginia/memories-of-lynching-linger-in-waverly/article_fdd4a998-fee4-5339-8b4c-7790f0ce7e49.html

 

 

Haki Kweli Shakur 3-20-52ADM ATCO-NAPLA NAIM

 

Virginia’s Eugenic Sterilization Act & Racial Integrity Act Signed into Law March 20 1924 Sets Standard For Nazi Eugenics Programs

MARCH 20th, 1924

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Virginia Passes Eugenical Sterilization Act
Eugenics, named for the Greek word meaning “well-born,” is a selective breeding philosophy that seeks to eliminate “undesirable” traits by preventing certain kinds of people from reproducing. Sir Francis Galton developed the term in 1883, and described eugenics as “the study of the agencies under social control that may improve or impair the racial qualities of future generations either physically or mentally.” As eugenics gained widespread support throughout the United States at the beginning of the twentieth century, states began to authorize doctors to forcibly sterilize their patients.
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Harry Laughlin, a leader in the eugenics movement, drafted a Model Eugenical Sterilization Law that Virginia adopted and enacted on March 20, 1924. The law, which allowed for the forced sterilization of people confined to state institutions as a “benefit both to themselves and society,” was passed on the same day that the Racial Integrity Act of 1924 became law.
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The Racial Integrity Act required the Virginia Bureau of Vital Statistics to record a racial description of every newborn baby, and outlawed marriages between “white” and “non-white” partners. Together, the laws sought to “purify the white race.”
When the Supreme Court upheld Virginia’s Eugenical Sterilization Act in Buck v. Bell in 1927, Virginia’s law became a model for the rest of the country and facilitated the forced sterilization of more than sixty thousand men and women nationwide. Children as young as ten years old were targeted for sterilization. Later, Virginia’s law was co-opted by Nazi Germany and relied upon as precedent for the Nazis’ race purity programs. Though eugenical theory was criticized after World War II, forced sterilization persisted long after in the United States.

Groups targeted and victimized
To Virginians, there seemed to be little difference between the harm to society caused by minorities and the harm caused by undesirable whites. During the time of sterilization, twenty-two percent of those sterilized were African American. This is roughly proportionate to the twenty percent of the total population represented by African Americans. In Virginia, sterilization rates were fairly proportionate to population representation (Dorr 2006, pp. 381-3). For this reason a wide array of individuals became targets for sterilization, specifically “mongrels,” minorities and poor whites. “Mongrels” are those who were considered to be of non-white heritage. In the opinion of Virginia, non-white was defined as any individual with any ancestor of any race but Caucasian, excluding those with 1/16th or less Native American blood. Additionally, institutionalized females who worked outside of the institution were sterilized at a higher rate than others due to their perceived risk of promiscuous interaction with the “normal” public (Claude Moore Health Sciences Library, p. 4). After World War II, the numbers of men becoming sterilized increased due to ex-soldiers’ mental problems and alcoholism (Brocato 2008, p. 113).

After Brown v. Board of Education in 1954, racist eugenics became more prominent. The 1954 Supreme Court case brought a resurgence of racist eugenics called “Massive Resistance” to prevent desegregation (Dorr 2008, p. 196).

Racist eugenics once again came into discussion with the 1962 and 1964 proposed laws for punitive sterilization of welfare mothers with illegitimate children. There was some fear that African, Far eastern, Indian, and African American populations were expanding far more rapidly than others, and these proposed laws were in part to target such communities (Dorr 2008, p. 196, 211). Even with the voluntary sterilization law, there was some concern that a woman might consent to being sterilized if strongly advised by a physician to do so. This trust in physicians could have given them the power to influence women to undergo sterilization for ultimately eugenic purposes (Dorr 2008, p. 214).

Other restrictions placed on those identified in the law
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On March 20, 1924 (the same day as the passage of SB 281, the “Eugenical Sterilization Act”) Virginia signed into law SB 219, the “Racial Integrity Act.” Under this piece of legislation to became “unlawful for any white person in [Virginia] to marry any [person] save a white person” (SB 219, Racial Integrity Act).

Ewe People – Explanation of The Four Elements & Ancient Origins of the Solar System – Mama Zogbe

Girls from the Ewe tribe of Ghana lined up at a traditional ceremony

Explanation of How the Four Elements Were Formed

According to the legends inherited from the Ewe Tro (Trowo pl.), (ancient ancestors), the universe is equated with the sacred calabash. It is described as an enormous calabash, in which the top is the heavens, covered by the sky, and the bottom is the earth, thus, splitting the world into opposite polarities. The sky is viewed as the masculine aspect of the universe, whereas the earth is viewed as the feminine aspect, because of its association with fertility, nurturing and nourishment.

The Ewe understood that all life is born from the active “insemination” of the sky, because it fertilizes the earth via the issuance of rain. The earth, acting as the receptor for the rain, gladly receives the water and nourishes the seeds, which germinates the plants, which creates a process of metamorphoses of both animals and men.

The ancient Ewe also believed that the world itself was a huge, feminine organic body, made up of the four very basic, but extremely important elements: Earth, Fire, Sky, and Water. They further believed that Water was generated from the interplay of the spirits of the sky, and that the Fire gushed from the Earth. But for them, the absolute essential impulse central to the release of these dynamic elements was Lightening. It was theorized that the contact of these two polarities (Earth and Sky) provoked the Lightning, and thus triggers the basic impulse of all cosmic and earthly transformations, including the process of copulation, and birth.

Additionally, the Fire, that the Ewe ancestors learned to make from rock and dry wood, is viewed as merely an extension of this divine force manifested from Thunder.” With the knowledge of Fire, the ancestors were able to transform laterite into iron, and thus master this element in order to forge tools for agriculture, weapons, hunting and war.

These cosmological concepts were often traditionally expressed in the traditional design of the royal bench, constructed from a single block of wood, in which it is cut into two base parts, supported by five legs/columns. One base representing the Earth, the other representing the Sky, the two front columns representing Fire, and Water, and the central columns representing Lightening. This same cosmological theme plays itself out in understanding the concept behind the Ewe’s belief that it is the major force that also regulates fertility, the Seasons and even Time itself.

Ancient Origins of the Solar System

According to the ancient Ewe ancestors, the cosmic concentration point for each year is situated in the sky. It consist of sixteen stars grouped (like twins) to form the constellation of Pleiades.

During the time of year when this constellation is not visible to the human eye (timed for a period of sixteen days, after which the birth of the first ancestors happened), all of nature losses it vigor.

It is considered unless to plant, to gather medicinal leaves, or to perform any vodou ceremonial rites. Most Ewe withdraw from the world, and all of life rests in what is considered a suspended lethargy, up until the constellation reappears to commence the New Year. However, this New Year is not immediately celebrated, for the Pleiades still remains relatively hidden from physical view. Back then according to legend, it was very difficult to see the Pleiades with the physical eye in the mornings, due to the heavy humidity and monsoon rains during this period.

Though the ancient Ewe would dutifully go about tending to the daily chores of the day, they worked with much vigor and anticipation of this joyful event, when it would manifest itself fully during the winter solstice. There this celestial phenomenon would rise majestically in the eastern horizon at midnight, traversing the entire sky before the early dawn. It was at this point when all would joyously celebrate the New Year!

 

http://mamiwata.com/cosmo.html ref and Source

Haki Kweli Shakur – August Third Collective NAPLA NAIM

John Mitchell Jr , William Washington Browne , Richard F Tancil , Giles B Jackson , RVA Black Economic Power and Bankers

Jackson Ward Black Wall Street and Church Hill Historic Districts of Richmond VA

John Mitchell Jr and Mechanics Savings
Bank

Mitchell was the founder and president of the Mechanics Savings Bank in Richmond. It was part of the rise of black-owned businesses in the city. Among the bank’s board of directors was photographer James C. Farley, who also worked with Mitchell at the Planet, In 1902 Mitchell opened the Mechanics’ Savings Bank in Richmond. Its deposits hit an all-time high of over half a million dollars in 1919. Three years after that, the bank failed. A jury found Mitchell guilty of fraud and theft in the bank’s collapse. The convictions were overturned, but Mitchell’s political and editorial influence was greatly diminished.
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William Washington Browne and The True Reformers Savings Bank

Savings Bank of the Grand Fountain United Order of True Reformers was the first bank owned by African Americans in the United States. It was founded on March 2, 1888 by Reverend William Washington Browne and opened on April 3, 1889. Although the True Reformers bank was the first black-owned bank chartered in the United States, the Capitol Savings Bank of Washington, D.C. was the first to actually open on October 17, 1888. – The Savings Bank of the Grand Fountain United Order of True Reformers Bank opened a year after its founding, initially operating out of Browne’s home at 105 West Jackson Street in the Jackson Ward district of Richmond, Virginia. The first day’s deposits totaled $1,269.28. In 1891, the bank moved several blocks away to 604-608 North Second Street. The bank grew and survived the financial panic of 1893, during which it was the only bank in Richmond to maintain full operation, honoring all checks and paying out the full value of accounts – Rev. Browne died in 1897 but the bank continued to thrive after his death, expanding into a number of other services including a newspaper, a real estate agency, a retirement home and a building and loan association. New branches opened as far away as Kansas, and by 1900 the bank was operating in 24 states, owning property valued at a total of $223,500.
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Richard F Tancil and The Nickel Savings Bank

By 1900, there were two African American banks in Richmond: the True Reformers and the Nickel Savings Bank. The Nickel Savings Bank was also known as “Dr. Tancil’s bank,” since physician Richard F. Tancil was its president, and it operated out of his East End home for many years after its founding in 1896. …Nickel Savings Bank was always small, not having started out as a depository for fraternal funds. Eventually, the Nickel Savings Bank’s cashier, Mr. Bass, organized a fraternal organization called the People’s Relief Association, and the bank became known as the People’s Bank.

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Giles B Jackson and True Reformers Bank

Giles B Jackson became the first African American attorney certified to argue before the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals. The next year, he helped found a bank associated with the United Order of True Reformers, In 1888 Jackson wrote the articles of incorporation for the Savings Bank of the Grand Fountain of the United Order of True Reformers, of which he was a member. The bank was rooted in the tradition of the benevolent societies and fraternal organizations of the era. By 1907 membership had reached 100,000 with deposits of $330,000 and more than $1.5 million in annual business. Booker T. Washington selected Jackson as his aide-de-camp in 1900 when Washington organized the Negro Business League in Boston. Jackson served as a vice president during the organization’s first three years!

 

 

 

 

 

1882 The Richmond Planet Started By Former Enslaved Afrikans , Black Power is Born

  • Richmond Planet

First published in 1882, and founded by 13 former Richmond slaves, the Planet was initially edited by Edmund A. Randolph. Two years later, 21-year-old John Mitchell, Jr., succeeded Randolph and continued as editor for the next 45 years, until 1929. Mitchell wasted little time: he replaced much of the press equipment, contributed his own artwork to the paper’s always impressive design, and increased circulation to the point that the Planet eventually turned a modest profit. The Planet by 1904 had reached a weekly circulation of 4,200. The paper also quickly gained a reputation as a staunch defender of the African-American community and a voice against racial injustice—“daring to hurl thunderbolts of truth into the ranks of the wicked. . . . No stronger race man is known among us.”

The Planet covered local, national, and international news, especially focusing on segregation, the depredations of the Ku Klux Klan, voting rights, and the scourge of lynching. Mitchell—“courageous almost to a fault”—never wavered in his loud protests, even in the face of frequent death threats. He once armed himself and personally went to investigate a lynching.

Hoping to influence change from within, Mitchell rose to considerable prominence within banking circles as well as the Republican Party and served on the Richmond city council from 1888 to 1896. But he gradually lost faith in any chance of blacks and whites uniting politically or in the cause of labor solidarity. After the segregation of Richmond’s streetcar system in 1904, Mitchell’s frustration and anguish erupted—“Let us walk.” “A people,” he added, “who will willingly accept discrimination . . . are not sufficiently advanced to be entitled to the liberties of a free people.” It is not surprising then that in editorial after editorial Mitchell increasingly shunned the more moderate strategies of leaders such as Booker T. Washington. He thereafter repeatedly positioned the Planet as one the South’s most forceful black voices, even once advising blacks to arm themselves in self-defense. The Planet thus reached far beyond Richmond, achieving prominence—and a degree of notoriety—throughout the South.

After numerous legal battles over his ownership of the paper and his several business failures, Mitchell died in poverty in 1929. The Planet, however, continued until 1938, when it merged with the Afro-American.

Reference/Main Source of Documentation

http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84025841/

 

 

 

Haki Kweli Shakur Presents August Third Collective /New Afrikan People’s Liberation Army/ New Afrikan Independence Movement  3-16-52ADM John Mitchell Jer and The Richmond Planet New Afrikan ( Black Power ) is Born