Afrikans/Black Seminoles & Native Seminoles Defeated at battle of Suwanee April 16-18 1818, there were many other Black leaders of the Seminole tribe. It would take at least two more major wars of resistance before the Seminoles and their Black allies lost possession of those lands.
In the spring 1818, during the final stages of the First Seminole War (1816–18), General Andrew Jackson led 1,500 soldiers and 1,800 allied Creek in a two-pronged campaign to end Seminole resistance in north-central Florida. On April 12, the Creek, led by mixed-blood William McIntosh, discovered a much smaller force of 200 Seminole under Peter McQueen in a swamp between the Econfina and Suwanee Rivers. The Creek forced the Seminole into the open and virtually destroyed them. When the fighting was over, 37 men were killed and some 100 taken prisoner.
A few days later, on April 16, Jackson reached the town of Seminole chief Billy Bowlegs on the Suwanee River. The Indians had fled upon learning of the Americans’ approach, but the town had become a haven for escaped slaves. Those who remained in the town made a brief stand before fleeing across the river.
Black Seminoles: the former slaves at Fort Mose went to Cuba with the Spanish when they left Florida in 1763, others lived with or near various bands of Indians. Slaves continued to escape from the Carolinas and Georgia and make their way to Florida. The blacks who stayed with or later joined the Seminoles became integrated into the tribes, learning the languages, adopting the dress, and inter-marrying. Some of the Black Seminoles, as they were called, became important tribal leaders.
Jackson left St. Marks to attack villages along the Suwannee River, which were occupied primarily by fugitive slaves. On April 12, the army found a Red Stick village on the Econfina River, and attacked it. Close to 40 Red Sticks were killed, and about 100 women and children were captured. In the village, they found Elizabeth Stewart, the woman who had been captured in the attack on the supply boat on the Apalachicola River the previous November. The army found the villages on the Suwannee empty, many of the Black Seminoles having escaped to Tampa Bay to the maroon community of Angola. Having destroyed the major Seminole and black villages, Jackson declared victory and sent the Georgia militiamen and the Lower Creeks home..
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