State of North Carolina Bertie County

The examination of Sundry Negro Slaves touching a conspiracy supposed to exist among the slave to rebel taken at Windsor before Justice assigned to keep them from the County of Bertie above named taken at Windsor this ninth day of June one hour and eighteen hundred and two.

That on the night on which despondent made died rode up Mr. Jaycook’s Ferry wikth Mr. Clement’s Robin that Robin told Despondent the Negroes were to rise and kill their white people. They were to leave a meeting at Mr. George Outlaw junior’s old field—that he Robin [unclear] the white people had catched him and whipped him at Mr. Daniels he would join them—that if there had not been too many together when they whipped him. Gain leader (belonging to Mrs. Anne Turner) Gain waited to buy some gun powder. Later that year buying a gun and some powder. The Negroes wanted to rise and kill white people; he would have some of their brains out. That him Outlaw Tony, Mr. Taylor Ports, Mr. Dyuyer’s Plato, David Horne’s Bob, Mr. James Jordan, little Jack, Mr. David Turner’s Emanuel, Jim L. Despondent himself, Mr. Dongan’s Jim and Sam Major Frances Pugh’s Lohil, Ambrose and Jim, Mr. Grays’ Dick, Miss. Lenon’s Sophie, Peter and Andréa, Mr. Handley, Bob, Mr. Outlaw’s Jim, Oliver or Sutton Harry, Mr. Purdy, Bill Mr. turner’s Gain, Mr. Haiss Arthur, Lewis and George, Captain Mr. Caufon Eli, Mr. John Clarks Peter, Malache Oliver’s Bob and Mr. Clemens Lt Robin all informed they were to meet to join to rise against the white people—Mr. Grays Dick also informed Despondent that Mr. Gray’s Jack was to join.

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They were to kill all the white people to burn houses and blow them up. Kill the people and so all they could to furnish themselves with arms from those who were first killed.

The examination of Jim, belonging to the Estate of David Turner deceased, he denies having any knowledge of or connection with the conspiracy—he heard last Monday evening from a Negroe boy of his mistress which boy said old woman about the house informed him-there was to be a meeting at Mr. George Outlaw’s old field tomorrow evening to concert a plan that they would rise up and kill the whites at Windsor first, get into the houses and kill the people as they come out of the houses—understood that Mrs. Turner’s Gain was the head man in calling the meeting.

Haki Kweli Shakur 6-7-52 ADM North Carolina Slave Conspiracies of 1802  Granville North Carolina Location



Virginia the property of Mr. Assi Darga says Bob/Dr. Dargert/ said the Black people always back_____about rising down at Pasquotank__Col. Pugh’s Sam told him he heard the Negroes about Windsor were about to rise. Sam told him on Monday he met with Mr. James (as he came from Mr. Simon’s), who [crossed out] him the Negros and Indians were rising against the Whites.


–Bob Mr. Lennon—Scipio Mr. Linnon told him then was to a night meeting at Mr. Outlaw field on Monday night last by Virginia. There were all the meeting hand was to be given when they were to kill the White people Mr. Turner’s Gain was head man and Mr. Stone’s Bob was next head man and André Mr. [unclear] was next head man, Mr. Hare’s Arthur next head man [unclear] Bob had the powder in a log a horn full and a sword made of a scythe and had a gun at his master house Scripio Mr. Bossman told him gave Virginia. Hear to hold night meeting on Monday nights. They were to kill the White men and do Negro woman and take White women for wives and the yard Negro girls for waiters this conversation happened Sunday evening at Mr. Busman

Examination of Harry the property of Mr. Outlaw, he says that Mr. Layette’s Sam some time ago come over to Mr. Outlaw and told this Harry that them guns we heard was in Virginia and that the Negroes was their fighting the White people about two weeks after the same come over again, and said that Mr. Gwerte’s Negroes was going to rise and that Capt. West had taken up 9 Negroes of his and denied it, but the head man confessed it and that—Capt West cut off the leader of them head. Mr. Barco come riding by the fence of Mr. Outlaw yesterday with a gun. Danice the property of Mr. Outlaw said that the white people would with their guns they are so afraid of the Negroes, Harry observed to him he would ride with his gun to Edmond the property of Luke Walton deceased, said they had better not interrupt him for if that they did he would soon leave Casher neck that he was as good a man as any of them he was asked where he was a going to for your master can for no friend to you, he said there is many a one as good as these masters.

North Carolina Maroons Settlements, Black Self Governance, Resistance – Haki Kweli Shakur

Simon/Mr. Bageman/ when runaway was a women of Mr. hunter was also at Gates {unclear] fish for the same meeting in gates with James Parnell who told him of the negroes rising in Portsmouth, was told by Sarah Boon a free woman there was good guns a good change of David collier when they went to meeting. Sarah Boon a free Black woman heard him say he wanted to get a gun from a poor white people along there he was willing [unclear] to except a gun that old Duke Meary D. gotten had was a good one of his old mistress [unclear] someone attempting to purchase a gun that works. Discuss Negroes rising in Virginia, who were being taken to goals.

The examination of Judi a negroe woman—belonging to Mr. Les Ray [space] buy duly cautioned the Jays that—him about and weeks ago Mr. Fetts Dave Murfrey came to her house one night after the white people had gone to bed and began to laugh and talk and said there is Hell fire news. What is it? We black are going to rise against them white we would do this and form a nation to come with powder of that would furnaces. Kill them white men and the ugly white women and we will take the handsome wh9ite woman for wives. We will make slaves of the negroe woman—told her that our [unclear] Who being with Reverend Reed was to furnish powder and if the powder he gave should be before the—come to give them money to buy more—to make the attack at the meeting which is to be held Friday, Saturday, Sunday or on the Sunday of it when there would be the most people to hide themselves in the woods and attack the people after they were collected to take as many as they could then kill them with the Buttes of their Muskets threatened the Witness that if he should be killed if she told—after Dave had been in the Court order that Tony the property of George Outlaw Junior receive three lashes—He laid on his bare back under the gallows and that he be committed to the Goal of the county. Contact his mother or family other person for him enter into an obligation with the Clerk to the State in the loan of 250 to be void only on condition that the said Tony—be transported or carried immediately out of the State of North Carolina and not again to be transferred to—or go at large within the State.

State of North Carolina

August Firm 1805

Bertie County

Ordered that Solomon Cherry sheriff be allowed Sixty Seven pounds Ten Shillings for the hire of men to guard the goal in the time of the Insurrection in June 1802.
George Grau State of North Carolina August to Firm 1802


Timeline of Slave Resistance Virginia & North Carolina 1790s to 1830s May to September

Reacting to disturbances in the West Indies, especially the bloody Saint Domingue (Haiti) revolt in 1791, North Carolina restricted the influx of Caribbean slaves in 1794. A year later the law was revised, and in 1798 Governor Samuel Ashe banned the importation of all West Indian slaves to permit the state to settle its own domestic difficulties. A Granville County slave named Quillo had organized a massive revolt to take place in April 1794. His failed plan included holding elections for an African American government and uniting with insurrectionists in neighboring Person County to kill all in their path. In 1798 three slaves, arrested in Bertie County for planning a revolt of 150 slaves, received 39 lashes after being found guilty of a high misdemeanor.

The alarm of a “slave conspiracy” in 1802 actually involved a series of actions taken by whites in response to threats of a slave revolt. Arrests, trials, and the execution of two slaves in Nottoway County, Va., in January 1802 proved to be the beginning of two successive waves of conspiracy scares. The first wave was confined to southeastern Virginia, except for brief excitements in Halifax and Northampton Counties, N.C., during February. The second wave began with new suspicions in Halifax County, Va., in April and spread rapidly to nearly all of eastern Virginia and North Carolina. Discovery of an alleged plot to burn Norfolk prompted slave arrests, trials, and executions from Currituck County eastward and southward in late May and June. Annapolis, Md., was also affected.

White panic was especially evident in Bertie County, where 11 slaves were executed. Others were put to death in Hertford, Halifax, Edgecombe, Currituck, Camden, and Perquimans Counties. Altogether, about 19 slaves were executed in North Carolina and 10 in Virginia, in addition to numerous others reportedly killed by vigilantes and militia. Many more suffered whippings, the cropping of ears, and deportation. Neither trials nor investigations in both states produced credible evidence of actual plotting, but public tranquility did not return until midsummer. Some tightening of slave codes resulted, but there were no further widespread alarms in this area for nearly three decades.

Two rumors of slave rebellions, both originating in Virginia, swept through North Carolina prior to the Civil War. The first followed the brutal murder of 59 white men, women, and children in Southampton County, Va., under the direction of a self-anointed slave preacher named Nat Turner on 21 Aug. 1831. Turner’s revolt elicited waves of North Carolina militia seeking to protect the state from similar unrest. One group, the Governor’s Guards, reportedly killed 40 slaves while helping to suppress a rebellion in Cross Keys, Va. In this climate of heightened fear, white North Carolinians discovered a suspected uprising in Duplin County, where after hours of torture on 5 Sept. 1831 a slave confessed to devising the plot. On 4 October the insurrectionists were to begin marching south to Wilmington, killing white families along the way; on the coast they would be joined by a force of about 2,000 blacks and blaze a path of destruction on their return north to Fayetteville. The alleged leaders-slaves named Dave and Jim-were killed by a mob on 9 Sept. 1831. Their deaths did not stop the spread of terror to Wilmington, where on 17 September, several slaves confessed to planning an additional revolt.

Several years later John Brown, a white abolitionist of questionable mental stability, led an ill-fated raid on the arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Va. (now West Virginia) to procure weapons for a slave revolt to end slavery. In the attempt, Brown and his men were captured on 16 Oct. 1859 by U.S. Marines under the command of Col. Robert E. Lee. While initial reports in North Carolina exaggerated Brown’s numerical strength, the seeming disinterest of black North Carolinians prevented the panic that followed the Nat Turner Rebellion. Nevertheless, in the wake of the raid numerous state newspapers clamored for a better slave patrol system. Black social outlets, including churches, were restricted as white North Carolinians perceived Brown’s plan as part of a larger northern conspiracy to undermine southern society. Although his mission failed, Brown inspired a backlash among whites against all things “non-southern,” which intensified the sectionalism in North Carolina leading to secession and theCivil War.