“According to African Historian, Dr. Ben Jochannan, the ancient Egyptians clearly defined their African origin in the papyrus of Hunefer, ‘We came from the beginning of the Nile where God-Hapi dwells, at the foothills of the mountain of the Moon.’ Dr. Ben Jochannan’s interpretation of this ancient record, ‘The mountain of the moon,’ identifies Kenya’s Kilimanjaro (a Kenya-based Ki Swahili word created by the indigenous Africans) and or Uganda’s ‘Rwenzori Mountain.’ The Egyptians originated in Africa, south of the Sahara. Recent diggings and artifacts throughout Meroe, Ta-Nehisi, Itiopi, all of these [places] south of Egypt, have further supported the southern origin of the Egyptians, black, white, red, brown or Technicolor.”
The last volcanic activity occurred about 200 years ago and created a symmetrical cone of ash around Kibo peak, and since then, Mt. Kilimanjaro was at peace until today, but people who were living on the slopes and observed volcanic eruptions connected this natural phenomenon to punishment from God.
When Mount Kilimanjaro is Africa’s jewel today, earlier occupants of its slopes took this glorious and glamorous mountain to a place on not going in fear of reprisal from God because it was his almighty seat. And locals today see the dwindling snow as a punishment from God because too many humans attempt to climb it everyday. Tourist deaths on the mountain are as well, connected to wrath from God.
South/Central Africa Suppressed History – Haki Kweli Shakur
Uncounted stories, thousands of myths and legends are told about Mount Kilimanjaro. Locals on the slopes, the Chagga people, are telling us of pygmies said to be no larger than human children, and who dwelt on the mountain’s caves and ravines. These ravines, which have never been explored by tourists, are said to have been inhabited by mountain pygmies who survived by hunting and gathering.
Stories on Mount Kilimanjaro tell of mountain gorillas once lived inside the dense, rainforest surrounding its slopes many years ago. Tales from locals, though no scientific data yet available to ascertain this, have occupied the minds of tourists climbing the mountain today.
Folklores dominate Mount Kilimanjaro as well. The awesome feature of the mountain with its snow on the peak had attracted locals to connect the mountain with heavens, believing that it was the seat of God, glorified by the whitish color of the snow.
During dry seasons in the past, locals blamed the mountain’s demons for taking away the rain, but when the rain was too much, they turned their faces to the mountain, bowing, asking God to forgive them.
Adding to the mystery of this highest mountain, there, probably dozens of names to mention it, as it remains a puzzle today.
For the local Chaggas, the name Kilimanjaro does not belong with their history or legend, it does not mean much although it’s the most famous name to foreign visitors or others from far away. They don’t have a collective name for this majestic mountain, they have two separate names. They call the highest peak “Kipoo” or Kibo and the shortest peak “Kimawense” or Mawenzi.
The Maasai people on the very lower slopes never gave a name to this awe-inspiring mountain but the Wakamba people on the Kenyan side named it “Kilima Jeu” and “Kayolaa.”
Germans named the mountain “Kilimandscharos,” though nobody knows where the Germans got the name. Some argue that it could have been a contraption from wrong pronouncement from the Chagga’s expression “Kilemeiroiya,” meaning not easy to climb on.
It is also believed that the present name of the mountain was derived from the Swahili people from Mombasa and other coastal towns who called it “Kilima Njaro,” or mountain of caravans, because they used the mountain as the symbol to determine directions form far away, as their compass.
Despite this naming convention is frequently agreed upon in East Africa, other communities like the Kikuyu and Maasai have their interpretations of what the name means and how it came about.
Some historians also feel that outsiders may have changed the Chagga word to “Kilema kyaro,” which means “difficult journey to Kilimanjaro.” Another theory is that the travelers to the mountain may have asked the Maasai living on the plains what they called the mountain, and the Maasai may have answered that it was the source of water using the word “Ngare” that then evolved to “Njare” or “Njaro.”
Other writers have since suggested that the name means “Shining Mountain,” “White Mountain” or “Mountain of Water.”
Kilimanjaro, unlike other known mountains in the world, has its present name remaining a puzzle to this date. Tourists and other mountain lovers could one day solve this puzzle. Its name remains one of many popular myths that add to its attraction for those wishing to unravel it.
Beyond the Mountains of the Moon: Reflections on Two Months in Egypt, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Ethiopia, and the Democratic Republic of Congo
Egypt in Africa
March 15, 2005
The mainstream media and many writers often portray Kemet (Egypt) as if it exists outside of Africa. Indeed, many people have been systematically conditioned to view Egypt as outside of Africa. Even if they can admit that Egypt is within Africa, it is often implicitly or explicitly stated that the original inhabitants were non-Black and different from those in other parts of Africa. Racism and the inability of Western-European ‘Egyptologists’ to properly understand the nature of African civilizations, has resulted in the mass whitewashing and de-Africanization of Egypt.
The paranoia, delusions and racist denial surrounding Egypt can take many forms. For instance, some persons claim that some alien life form from another planet was responsible for creating Egypt on the ‘dark’ continent. Another unfounded theory is that the Greeks or some mysterious (non-African) civilization were responsible for teaching the Egyptians what they knew. These speculative theories go against the extensive evidence available that clearly shows the creators of the Nile Valley civilizations as black, kinky-haired Africans who were no different from those in sub-Saharan Africa. It seems to be easier for some people to accept that aliens built the pyramids and other monuments, for which there is not a single shred of evidence, than to believe that Black Africans could have conceived anything so magnificent. Historians such as John Henrik Clark, Cheik Anta Diop, Charles Finch, Yosef Ben Jochannan, Ivan Van Sertima, and Chancellor Williams have done extensive scholarly works that have been instrumental in helping to overturn the myths and distortions surrounding Egypt and her relation to wider Africa.
In 1951, the multi-disciplinary scholar, Diop, submitted a doctoral thesis based on the premise that Egypt was an African civilization. It was rejected. After two more failed attempts, in 1960 he marched into the doctoral session with an array of anthropologists, historians and sociologists and only then was successful at gaining his doctorate. Diop later established a radiocarbon laboratory where he was able to develop a melanin test that he used to test Egyptian mummies. His tests found high levels of melanin content adding another powerful piece of evidence to support his conclusion that Egypt was a Black civilization before the later invasions by the Persians and other external groups.
Understandably, the abundance of hieroglyphic scripts, artefacts and archaeological sites make Kemet a good starting place for the study of African civilizations. However, in African historiography, the overemphasis on Egypt has divorced it from its African context and other parts of Africa that are equally important in the momentous task of putting together the jigsaw puzzle of the past. Thus it is important to understand that Egyptian civilization did not exist in a vacuum but was a continuation of preceding civilizations to which it was intimately connected.
It is a mistake to label Egypt as the beginning of civilization as many writers have done. Such writers fall into the trap of conceptualizing civilization through a Eurocentric lens by only being able to see civilization as being characterized by grand monuments, pyramids, and beautiful temples. However, this is not the essence of civilization. It was the simple egalitarian way of life of indigenous Africans deep in the African interior, who by observing and understanding natural law originated the core principles and structures of spirituality, science, mathematics and astronomy that gave rise to the grand achievements of Kemet and Nubia.
The achievements of the Nile Valley people stood on the foundation of thousands of years of observation of the stars, moon, sun and other natural phenomenon by interior Africans. From these early Africans in the interior we see one of the earliest known prototypes of the God-man called Bes, which predates Heru (Greek- Horus) and Ausar (Greek-Osiris) who in turn predate the biblical Jesus by thousands of years. The physical characteristics of Bes reflect the short stature of these early Africans who were ancestors of the modern day Twa peoples. In the papyrus of Hunefer the people of the Nile Valley were quite clear about their origins, “We came from the beginning of the Nile where the God Hapi dwells, at the foothills of the mountain of the Moon.” There are two mountains whose names both mean ‘mountain of the moon’ – Kilimanjaro in Tanzania, whose river contributes to the Blue Nile, and Rwenzori Mountain in Uganda, which is the source of the White Nile. Civilization flowed down the river Nile, which starts from the White Nile and Blue Nile in Uganda and Ethiopia, flowing north to Egypt. The River Nile stretching for 4,000 miles was a huge cultural highway that facilitated the movement of people and natural resources and the exchange of information and goods.
Fekri Hassan in the book “Egypt in Africa” in discussing ancient Egypt declares that the cultural continuity with the African substratum and the strong historical cultural interactions between Egypt and other African societies clearly demonstrate that Africa was the cradle of Egyptian civilization. The historian Charles Finch advanced that the “peopling of the Nile Valley from Africa’s Great Lakes region must have occurred over and over again in waves. The population wave from the Great Lakes directly ancestral to the historical Nile Valley people probably began to settle north of the second cataract no later than 15, 000 years ago.”
John G Jackson in “Introduction to African Civilizations” reminds us that the study of Egyptology developed in concurrence with the development of the slave trade and the colonial system. It was during this period that attempts to whitewash Egypt and separate it from its African context began. Scholars such as Diop in countering the tendency of Western Egyptologists to separate the Egypt from Africa identified several factors such as social organisation, kingship, linguistics, cosmogony, matriarchy and veneration of ancestors that show the affinity between the Nile Valley and sub-Saharan Africa.
One noteworthy aspect that is characteristic of most ancient African societies is the reverence for the feminine aspect of the universe that is reflected by a social organisation in which women played important and powerful roles. For instance, the goddess Maat often represented by a feather personified the principles of truth, justice, balance and reciprocity. In stark contrast to the current patterns of male domination and repression of the female principle seen in modern day society, dark skinned-kinky haired Africans more than four thousand years ago provide the best examples from which people can learn practical principles that can be applied in a ‘modern’ context.
The context and history of the Nile Valley civilizations has been neglected and distorted within mainstream academia, however it is an important link to understanding the contribution of African people to world civilization. Though this contribution is undeniable, it is generally ignored and not incorporated into the mainstream. In tracing the origin of Egypt and Nubia to deeper into the heartland, we realize that that many aspects of Western Civilization that are now taken for granted including mathematics, philosophy, religion, medicine, astronomy and science sprung from these dark skinned, kinky-haired Africans. For instance, in Ishango, archeologists came across a bone with markings that represented an arithmetic system revealing a familiarity with prime numbers, decimals, and addition by duplication. The Ishango bone dates back about 25,000 years. The same methods used on the Ishango bone were used in the Rhind Mathematical papyrus from Egypt that date back 4,000 years ago.
Cheik Anta Diop stated, “The history of Black Africa will remain suspended in air and cannot be written correctly until African historians dare to connect it with the history of Egypt.” The reverse is also true, the history of the Nile Valley Civilizations will remain distorted and suspended in the air until historians dare to connect it to the history of Black Africa. Technology and research are unearthing new evidence that support the writings of Diop, Ben Jochannan and others, however the old biases and distortions remain.
The African Origin of Civilization by Cheik Anta Diop
Civilization or Barbarism: An Authentic Anthropology by Cheik Anta Diop
Egypt, Child of Africa edited by Ivan van Sertima
Africa, Mother of Western Civilization by Yosef Ben Yochannan
Echoes of the Old Darkland by Charles Finch
The Star of Deep Beginnings by Charles Finch
Introduction to African Civilizations by John G Jackson
The Nile is a gift of Africa to Egypt. 9, 6000 miles long, it springs up in the countries of the Great Lakes or Nyanza (Lake in Swahili), renamed “Lake Victoria” in 1858 by the British explorer John Speeke. After the rainy seasons, the lakes of the “Mountains of the Moon” (mythical name given by Ancient Egyptians to the Assembly lines of the Kilimanjaro) had such a big flow that the Nile engulfed everything in as it cut across the valley from Uganda, Ethiopia, the Sudan and Egypt. The White Nile lies in the Northern assembly lines of the Ruwenzori, highest mountain top of the African continent in Buganda and the Kilimanjaro or Mountain of the Moon (or of the Spirits?) in Kiswahili and meets the Blue Nile in Khartoum in the lake Tina, where the first human beings lived and where the skeleton of Lucy was found. The Nile cuts across Meroe, the former capital of Nubian from the first to the sixth cataract and forms a black sediment off the shores of Egypt (Kemet, the Black land) to then flow into the Mediterranean Sea further up North, as indeed Afrikaans believe that water comes from the North. After the severe drought, which hit the Sahara (when?), its inhabitants moved towards this great lake. They joined other Africans coming from up North and down South who were living on this sacred plot of land of 64 miles wide; they had to learn the mythical language of this river which was leaving its black sediment after a four month flood which the land cultivators used during their sowing period. This is how the concept of agriculture came into being invented by Osiris (WSIR), which laid the foundations for Kemetic civilization
.1 CHRONOLOGY II (CONTENTS)
Origin of egypt
Nagada Period I
—4500 –3500 Royal seals written on the jars full of goods and
trading materials where the name of the Pharaoh is a pictogram.
Nagada Period II –3500 –3100
Hieroglyphics were used in commemorative royal art on
knife handles, bludgeons, palettes, incense holders,
as the emblem of the white and red crown (13*), by the
beer drinkers and their brewery.
· Nagada Period III –3100 –3000
· Dynasty 0 beginning of scriptures (14*)
Archaic or Early Dynasty Period
1 and 2 Dynasties –3100 –2700
Upper and Lower Egypt were gathered under the double
crown of the Reed and the Bee and the sceptre of Menes
(Namer, Mani, Mwani?). Emergence of political and
religious institutions, advancement of the calendar,
hieroglyphics, irrigation systems, usage of granite,
brass tools and weapons, first surgery treaty
recorded, and the foundation of the Memphis power.
3 to 6 Dynasty –2700 –2200
The Pharaohs Djozer, Khufu, Kafre, Menkahor,
metallurgy, ivory, wood, earthenware, the great
pyramids, were predominant in all aspects, the
importance of the Deity of the sun RA, the pyramid
FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD 7th to 11th Dynasty –2200 –2060
Dismemberment of Egypt in small rival states.
Political and social chaos, battles and wars between
the heracleopolitan power of lower and Higher Egypt
(Osirian’s revolution), pillage of the pyramids and the
sarcophagus scriptures, etc.
11 and 12 Dynasty –2060 –1780
Revival of the Osiris Cult (Wsir), classical period of
the Egyptians reunification of Egypt by Menthouhotep
II who named the capital Thebes, cultural rebirth.
SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD 1785 – 1555
Decline of the central authority. Invasion of the Hyksos in the Delta.
· NEW EMPIRE 18 to 20 Dynasty –1555 –108http://www.peuplesawa.com/newspics/393.gif Ames chased away the Hyksos. Main Kings and Queens: Thutmosys, Amenophys, Tutankhamen Ramses, Hatshepsut, Akhenaton, Horemheb, craft and literature flourishing The Monotheism of Akhenaton, The Book of
Coming Forth into Light, the temples of Karnack, Luxor,
THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD 21 to 24 Dynasty –1080 –775 BC
Cushitic Period 25 Dynasty Pianky, Chabaka, Taharqa are in favour of historical
study of the past, imitation of ancient arts,
perfection of stone engraving (cultural essence),
neorealist, perfect methods of brass melting.
Saitic Period 26 Dynasty –672 –525
Nekao Psammetic. Thebes is ruined, inventions by the Assyrians.
FIRST AND SECOND DOMINATION – Persian Period
26 to 30 Dynasty –525 –332
the Beef happy, Cambyse, Darius, etc.
PTOLEMAIC PERIOD –332 –30
Conquest of the Greek Alexander the Great, the Ptolemy
Kings, Cleopatra. Reconstruction of the temples of
Philae, Edfou, Kom-Ombo, Denderah.
ROMAN PERIOD –30 +337
Birth of Jesus Christ
+395 last hieroglyphic scripturesrecorded. The Emperor Justinian closed down the Temple of Philae.
· The last inscription in hieroglyphs carries of Hadrian in Philae
+470 Last demotic scripture recorded.
The Coptic Church seeks exile in Abyssinia.
Birth of Mohammed.
A few abbreviations
AC = Ancient Empire
ME = Middle Empire
· NE = New Empire
IP = Intermediary Period
New Africa Empire
1 – — +
5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 520 0 500 1000 2000 /2013
Pre Nagada Ancient. Middle New Cambyse Beginning of Roman Turkish-Arabic
Dynastic Era Kemetic Era Kemetic Era Kemetic Era Greek Common Era
+ 7000 years
Historical Consciousness Seven thousand years of cultural events that collective consciousness must embrace
After his voyage around the worldwsir (Hawsar or Osiris in Greek) revealed the techniques of agriculture to the peoples that were still living of hunting and gathering. Wsir was killed by his brother Seth(ST) who cut him into pieces, and ISIS (AST) his wife and sister tried to put the pieces together. He went to hell to resuscitate the fortunate. This myth is intrinsically linked to the history of Egypt (11). Very soon, conflicts arose concerning the demarcation of border fields once the flood was over and the redistribution of cultivable lands became a serious issue. As a result, sovereigns asked the scribes and the scientists to create a coherent system that would enable a fairer distribution, which gave birth to Geometry.
Egyptians were organized in forty-two spt (or NOMES in Roman) represented by totems (The Tama elements composing Nature,
Minerals, Plants, Animals, Humane, ancestor, angel (genies,) l; god of the god.).
There were “SPT” of the sparrow hawk, the
elephant, the crocodile, the white wall, thunder, pink
bay leave, the calf and the cow, etc.
When his father died wsir ) hr (Horus the avenger of his father?) inaugurated the kingdom of the Deities, This royalty was created by Ra and by him at the beginning of the world, but when he decides to retreat in the sky for his daily trip he entrust his royalty to him divine descendants
Shu, Geb, Osiris, Horus
And the followers of Horus called the
“sms-hr”hr wr; ny hr; iri r hr; k3hr;
The king Scorpio and why to the pharaohs, who the firs is Menes which ruled Egypt represented seating on the throne
Of Egypt and inaugurating the celestial African kingdom based on the constellation of “Denderah”, as the celestial position of stars could legitimate the sovereignty of those whose totem corresponded to the current constellation.
This is how all sovereigns were chosen and succeeded each other. However there was a certain rivalry which engendered trouble in the kingdom of the Deities.
Mènes (Namer?) pacified the country after several battles, and gathered Egypt under a double crown, the white and the red, the reed and the bee, Upper and Lower Egypt, a united country
whose capital became Memphis (the white).
Source: Richard King, M.D. African Origin of Biological Psychiatry. 1990.
JAH – Two Mountains of the Moon & Two Mesopotamia – View Messages
The Ancient Kemites said, “We came from the beginning of the Nile where God Hapi dwells, at the foothills of The Mountains of the Moon.”
Where is “the beginning of the Nile?” The farthest point of the beginning of the Nile is in Uganda; this is the White Nile. Another point is in Ethiopia; Blue Nile. The Blue Nile and White Nile meet at Khartoum in Sudan (Nubia)
Lake Victoria is the origin of the White Nile and is located at the base of the Rwenzori Mountains. The Rwenzori, which means “maker of rain” in local dialects, are a small but dramatic range just to the northwest of Lake Victoria. Lake Tana is the source of the Blue Nile. North of Tana are the spectacular Simian Mountains. One of the highest ranges in Africa. These mountains (Simians & Rwenzori), experience regular and significant snowfall. They also hold several significant glaciers. Others have suggested that Diogenes may have spotted Kilimanjaro as the Mountains of the Moon, however, this is unlikely given the absence of a major lake in the region as well as that that Diogenes described a range rather than a solitary mountain
With such a provocative name, the “Mountains of the Moon”, one must wonder from whence it was derived. There is some speculation that this is a transliteration into Greek of the Amharic name for the mountains near Lake Tana at the source of the Blue Nile, called to this day, the Simians. In Amharic, “Simian Mountains” translates as “Northern Mountains”. However, a liberal transliteration of the word “Simian” into Greek might come up with “Selene” – the Moon Goddess (Their is also the Mesopotamia moon god “Sin”); Thus Simian Mountains would rendered as Mountains of the Moon. Keep also in mind the Blue Nile, rising in Ethiopia, contributes about 85% to the flow of the Nile River that passes through Egypt to the Mediterranean. This technically would put Ethiopia as the source of the Nile?
How, one wonders, did the Simian Mountains get confused with the Rwenzori Mountains thousands of miles away? One must remember that Ptolemy was piecing together very sparse second and third hand accounts of merchant voyages, military campaigns, ancient Egyptian records.
Now to the two Mesopotamia:
Is Southern Sudan and Northwest Ethiopia a type of “Mesopotamia” or the original? For both Mesopotamia and Northeast – Southeast Africa was apart of Kush/Kish. Even in Mesoamerica their is an Olmec king called U-Kish Kan.
Mesopotamia comes from the Greek, meaning ‘Land between two rivers’ and the White and Blue Nile meets at Khartoum in Sudan. They are also old maps of Africa depicting two Euphrates and Tigris rivers. The other being in Africa named Eufrate River and Tigrei (Tigrayans in Eritrea).
Remember the name Eritrea is derived from the ancient Greek name for the Red Sea (Erythraia)
It seem there were two Mesopotamian empires: One in Africa and one in Middle east which is all connected to Kush/Punt.
In the “Lost Book of Enki” author Zecharia Sitchin stated Enki (Ptah) and his crew landed in the Persian Gulf but in this very book Sitchin claimed the Anunnaki splashed landed in an “Ocean”, however, they are no oceans in the middle east. It seem more plausible that Enki landed in the Indian Ocean/Arabian Sea and then made their way through the “Gulf of Aden” to either djibouti or Eritrea, followed by the interior of Ethiopia – Sudan.
Here is an except:
“The chariot’s lungs he filled with air; into the waters down it splashed, into the depth, it was not sinking. From the Speaker a voice was heard: To Earth be welcomed! Alalu (allah derived from his name) was saying. By his beamed words the direction of his whereabouts was determined. Toward the place Anzu (Pilot) the chariot directed, floating as a boat it was upon the waters moving. Soon the wide-ranging OCEAN narrowed (approaching gulf of aden), dry land on both sides as guardian appeared. On the left side brown-hued hills were rising (Somalia is know as “brown hills on the horizon”), and on the right mountains to heaven their heads raised (Yemen is known as one of the most mountainous regions in Arabia). Toward the place of Alalu was the chariot moving (djibouti/Eritrea.), floating like a boat upon the waters it was.
When entering the Gulf of Aden via the Indian Ocean/Arabian Sea one will be between Somalia and Yemen.
The first settlement Enki established after arriving on earth was called Eridu. However, since the letter “D” and “T” are interchangeable Eridu can be translated as Eritu (Eritrea).
Earth was also named after Enki’s Sumerian-Akkadian named EA (EArht)
Eridu means “home away from home” or “Home of the Faraway”, since they’ed journey from a distant planet.
Enki’s temple in Eridu was called E-abzu, which means “house of the deep water”. Thus, Enki was in charge of the ABZU or APSU (Land of Africa/Ethiopia), and where the term ABYSS is derived from i.e. ABYSSINIA.
Alalu was the first to journey to Earth and set up his abode which was a Reed-hut. The reed hut are traditional houses of the Afar tribe in Ethiopia & Etitrea. In fact, Traditional rural reed and thatch hut houses are very common in Africa.
The cradle of civilization is sometimes referenced by the name Dilmun, or Tilmun. Here, it was said, the god Enki and his wife were placed to institute ‘a sinless age of complete happiness’.
The texts spoke of mythical Dilmun located in a mountainous region beyond the plains of Sumer (Ethiopian Highlands=Extraterrestrial). But where exactly was it located since Mesopotamian inscriptions do not say.
Furthermore, Ea (the Akkadian Enki) was said to have presided over the concourse of Mesopotamia’s two greatest rivers – the Tigris and Euphrates (White and Blue Nile?)
Dilmun was allegedly a magical land, the birthplace of the gods and the place where the arts of civilization where said first to have been transmitted to men. It was the subject of many legends told by the Sumerians.
Its now a proven fact the Land of mythical Punt (God’s Land) comprised of Ethiopia, Eritrea, djibouti and Somalia.
I personally think both Punt and Dilmun are one and the same place and modern day Eritrea-Ethiopia is your Eridu, Dilmun, Punt and Biblical/Mythical Israel.
The Queen of Sheba was actually Queen of Saba (Meroe), which was the ancient capital city of Nubia/kush (Sudan). The Jewish Historian Josephus clearly identifies the Queen who visited Solomon as “the woman who ruled Egypt and Ethiopia (Sudan)”, just like those in the 18th Dynasty of Kemet. Queen Hatshepsut names means “The Sign of the Sheba of the South” and her throne name was Makara (Maat-ka-re). Notwithstanding the similarity between the names Makare (Makere) and Makeda. It was this Pharaonic Queen who like Sheba, journey to the Land of Punt (Eritrea-Ethiopia=Biblical Israel).
Mythical Solomon (Shelomith) was actually her Lover, Senenmut, the Great Architect and Genius. Hatshepsut´s temple was named “Djeser-djeseru” (“holy of holies”=Solomon Temple). It sits directly against the rock which forms a natural amphitheater around it so that the temple itself seems to grow from the living rock and was designed by Senenmut.
The reason why modern day Ethiopia/Eritrea still retained and claimed Sheba is because Modern day Ethiopia was comprised of both Nubia/Kush (Northwest Ethiopia) and Punt (Northern east Ethiopia) and the Serpent-Kings originate from Punt (serpent Arwe). Let not forget Kemet and Kush were seen as colonies of Great Punt.
For some reason ancient Ethiopian history is very obscured and remains hidden……
The Nile Valley Civilization
Spread of African Culture
By Yosef ben-Jochannan
(A lecture delivered for the Minority Ethnic Unit of the Greater London Council, London, England, March 6–8, 1986. It was addressed mainly to the African community in London consisting of African people from the Caribbean and African people from Africa.)
When we speak of the Nile Valley, of course we are talking about 4,100 miles of civilization, or the beginning of the birth of what is today called civilization. I can go to one case of literature in particular which will identify the Africans as the beginners of the civilization to which I refer. And since I am not foreign to the works of Africans in Egypt, otherwise called Egyptians, I think that should be satisfactory proof. This proof is housed in the London Museum that is holding artifacts of Egypt. In that museum you will find a document called the Papyrus of Hunifer. At least you should find it there. It was there when Sir E. A. Wallace Budge used it in his translation as part of the Egyptian Book of the Dead and the Papyrus of Hunifer.
It was there at that time, a copy of which is in the library of Syracuse University in New York, and I quote from the hieratic writing, “We came from the beginning of the Nile where God Hapi dwells, at the foothills of The Mountains of the Moon.” “We,” meaning the Egyptians, as stated, came from the beginning of the Nile. Where is “the beginning of the Nile?” The farthest point of the beginning of the Nile is in Uganda; this is the White Nile. Another point is in Ethiopia. The Blue Nile and White Nile meet in Khartoum; and the other side of Khartoum is the Omdurman Republic of Sudan. From there it flows from the south down north. And there it meets with the Atbara River in Atbara, Sudan. Then it flows completely through Sudan (Ta-Nehisi, Ta-Zeti or Ta-Seti, as it was called), part of that ancient empire which was one time adjacent to the nation called Meroe or Merowe. From that, into the southern part of what the Romans called “Nubia,” and parallel on the Nile, part of which the Greeks called “Egypticus”; the English called it “Egypt” and the Jews in their mythology called it “Mizrain” which the current Arabs called Mizr/Mizrair. Thus it ends in the Sea of Sais, also called the Great Sea, today’s Mediterranean Sea. When we say thus, we want to make certain that Hapi is still God of the Nile, shown as a hermaphrodite having the breasts of a woman and the penis of a man. God Hapi is always shown tying two symbols of the “Two Lands,” Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt, during Dynastic Periods, or from the beginning of the Dynastic Periods. The lotus flower is the symbol of the south, and the papyrus plant, the symbol of the north.
But we need to go back beyond Egypt. I used “Egypt” as a starting point, in that of all the ancient civilizations in the world, Egypt has more ancient documents and other artifacts than any other civilization one could speak of. So when you hear them talking about “Sumer” and “Babylon,” and all those other places, theoretically, they can’t show you the artifacts. Thus my position is, first hand information is the best proof; and I can show you the bones and other remains of Zinjanthropus Boisei about 1.8 million years ago. But no one can show me the bones and remains of Adam and Eve, et al.
So I have the proof and you have the belief. If you want to see it you can go to the Croydon National Museum in Nairobi, Kenya; there, you’ll see the Bones Zinjanthropus Boisei. If you want to see the remains of “Lucy,” you can go to the national Museum associated with the University of Addis Ababa. Of course, there are a host of other human fossils that existed thousands of years ago all over Africa; but you can’t find one “Adam” or one “Eve” in any part of Asia.
But we have to go beyond that. We can look at the artifacts before writing came into being. We will then be in archaeological finds along the Nile. Also you would find that there were two groups of Africans; one called “Hutu,” and one called “Twa.” The Twa and Hutu take us back into at least 400,000 B.C.E. (Before the Common “Christian” Era) in terms of artifacts. The most ancient of these artifacts, one of the most important in Egypt, is called the “Ankh,” which the Christians adopted and called the “Crux Ansata” or “Ansata Cross.” The Ankhwas there amongst these people, equally the “Crook” and “Flail.” All of these symbols came down to us from the Twa and Hutu. You know the Twa by British anthropologists who called them “pygmies.” There is no such thing in Africa known as a “pygmy,” much less “pygmies.” But the people call themselves Twa and Hutu, so that’s what they are.
If we look at the southern tip of Africa, a place called “Monomotapa,” before the first Europeans came there with the Portuguese in 1486, C.E./A.D. (Christian Eera), a man called Captian Bartholomew Diaz, and subsequently another European and his group came, one called Captain Vasco da Gama, who came there ten years later in 1496; when they came to that part of Africa they met another group of people there as well, which they called “Kaffirs.” Now this is a long time before the Boers came there in 1652. When the Boers came those Africans may have gone to the moon on vacation (or there they “didn’t meet any natives” [Africans] so they say. But one thing is certain, that Bartholomew Diaz and Vasco da Gama had already left records showing that when they arrived there at Monomotapa the Khaffirs [Africans], including the small ones (Khoi-Khoi, and Khalaharis) (remember I didn’t say “Bushmen” or “Hottentots,” that’s nonsense, the racist names given them by the British and Dutch Boers), were already there.
So with all of these people that were found in this area we could go back at least 35,000 to 40,000 years to another group of people who left their writings and their pictures. Those people are called Grimaldi. The Grimaldi were there in the southern tip of Africa, and traveled up the entire western coast, then came to the northwestern coast of Africa, and crossed into Spain. Not only in Spain, but all the way up to Austria; it was found that the Grimaldi had traveled and left their drawings in caves all along the way. In the Museum of Natural History, New York City, New York, you can see Grimaldi paintings going back to at least 35,000 years ago. I remind you that it is only about 31,000 years before Adam and Eve! It is very important you realize that, the next time you talk about Adam and Eve. So we are told that there is an Adam and Eve that started the world, but that is a “Jewish world” and I’m talking about before Abraham, the first Jew.
The country that I am talking about now goes back to a period called the Sibellian Period. Sibellian I brings us to a period where you will find hieratic writings, the type that no one in modern times has been able to decipher. Sibellian II existed about 25,000 years before the birth of Jesus-the Christ. Sibillian III would bring us to about 10,000 B.C.E., in which we now have the Stellar Calendar that I spoke about, and the pre-dynastic period will be considered from the same, 10,000 to 6,000 B.C.E., and that is the point when High Priest Manetho, in about 227 or 226 B.C.E., attempted to present for the Greeks, who had imposed upon him to write a kind of chronological history of the Nile Valley. Europeans, instead of saying what Manetho said in his chronology of the history of the Nile Valley, forget to say it was at the end of the Nile Valley he addressed. For example, the “First Cataract,” i.e., an obstruction in the Nile River, is at a place called the City of Aswan, when in fact it is the last; the “Sixth Cataract” is in fact Aswan, Upper (or Southern) Egypt.
This is important to understand, because Egypt, which most of us deal with and forget the rest of the Nile Valley, is not at the beginning of the Nile Valley high cultures, but the end. High culture came down the Nile; but if you go on the Nile you will always hear about the “pyramids of Egypt.” Yes, they are the “world’s largest”; they will blow your mind, so to speak, but they are not the first pyramids of Africa; they are the last. There are thirty-two pyramids in Sudan, none in Ethiopia, and seventy-two in Egypt. What happened is that as the Africans became much more competent in engineering, etc., they increased the size of their pyramids in sophistication; thus at the end of the Nile you could see different forms and the colossal pyramids, the largest being one by Pharaoh Khufu, whom Herodotus called Cheops, and that would be one of the pyramids built in the 4th Dynasty. The first of the pyramids of Egypt being that by Imhotep, for his Pharaoh Djoser/Sertor (“Zozer”), the third pharaoh of the Third Dynasty. The architect was the multi-genus, Imhotep, who introduced to mankind the first structure ever built out of stone, and with joints without mortar of any other binding materials.
Now you could understand if I said that the pyramids in Sudan ore older than the pyramids in Egypt, and I simultaneously say that Imhotep built the first stone structure known by man, it would seem to be a contradiction. It is not a contradiction, because those in Sudan were built by two methods. There were some pyramids called silt pyramids, and the second method was mud-brick pyramids. Not the type of “bricks made of mud and straw” mentioned in the Hebrew Holy Torah, specifically the Book of Exodus. That has to be made clear. How did the silt pyramids come about? That type of pyramid came about due to the Inundation Period of the Nile River. This was the period when the Nile River overflowed its banks bringing down the silt from the highlands of Ethiopia and Uganda, and from the Mountain of the Moon, which the people of Kenya called Kilimanjaro.
It is in this perspective that we are talking about Africa as a people. Because, all of that period of time we are talking about, you can go there now and see the artifacts in museums all over Europe and the United States of America. I’m not speaking to you chronologically, because I am using my recall; let us go back to the event that took place; and as I thought about this, something about medicine came to my mind, I remember going to the double Temple of Haroeris and Sobek; Haroeris represented by the Cobra Snake and Sobek represented by the Nile Crocodile. In that temple at the rear, you will find drawings of medical instruments going back to the time of Imhotep. That will bring us to about 285 B.C.E. to the construction of the Double Temple which was during Greek rule. Most of the medical instruments you see there are the exact dimension, the exact styles and shapes still used in medical operation theaters today. You could see all kinds of symbols relating to the use of incense; you could also find the beginnings of the aspect of the calendars (the dating process for the farmers) the same the Coptic farmers still use, the 13-monts calendar, twelve months of thirty days each, and one month of five days. The same one the Ethiopian government still uses, officially; that calendar still a means of telling time to date. When we go to the Temple of the Goddess Het-Heru (Hathor) at a place called Dendara, we see the beginnings of what is called the Zodiac. The French stole the original, and in carrying it to France, in hot pursuit by the Arabs of Egypt, they dropped it in the River Nile. Yet a Frenchman said he remembered everything, and he produced a whole new one within two weeks. So if you read Revelations, like this false Zodiac, it has nothing to do with St. John, but in fact Bishop Athanasius. This is the same thing. How could the French remember the stolen Egyptian Zodiac so well? It was rectangular, but what they remembered is circular. Thus it is the French who made the Zodiac they placed in the Temple of Goddess Het-Herufor tourist these days, and the tourist guides will tell you that is the French one. So!
You can see that even in those early times we were dealing with astronomy, and Europeans have not gone one inch further than those Africans along the Nile. What you have to remember, however, is that the Papyrus of Hunefer deals with the Africans who came down the Nile, who were already using this type of thing: and we must wonder since we don’t have the day-to-day, or enough artifacts to put them together to see the transition. Why is it that the Yorubas of West Africa have the same structure of the deity system as the Nile Valley? I don’t remember much because the Yorubas in their own folklore speak of having come from the Nile Valley; so you can stop wondering right there, since it is from their earliest teachings in their folklores.
When we go down the Nile and look at the engineering, and our engineering goes not only to the building of the pyramids by Imhotep, this multi-genius, but equally to the time of Senwosret II, with the division of the Nile water; equally to stop the rush of water. That would put us right back to 2,200 Before the Common “Christian” Era (B.C.E.).
The use of navigation and navigational instruments by using the sun and the stars as navigational tools—we have the best record of that going back even before Pharaoh Necho II, who saw the navigation of the entire continent and had a map of Africa in almost the common shape it is; and that dates to ca 600 B.C.E. Whereas Herodotus, who came to Egypt in 457 B.C.E., and Erastosthenes, who came there between 274–194 B.C.E., used maps which were rectangular in shape. They reflected the end of Africa being where the Sahara is, the southern end of the Sahara, meaning that they had no concept of Africa from about Ethiopia south to Monomotapa, now called the Republic of South Africa. It is important to note that England played a major role in most of the distortion that we are talking about.
Then we come again to another part that we are talking about, that is, agriculture, before we even come to writing. At the gathering state, when man observes the seed germinating, and out of that came the religious conflict, which other men are to later follow, comes out of one of the most secret symbols of the religiosity of Egypt and other parts of Africa. We are now talking about the dung beetle, and the observation of the African along the Nile with respect to the dung beetle, otherwise called the Scarab. The dung beetle hibernates, goes into the manure of a donkey, horse and the cow, only animals with grass manure. And that beetle remains in there for twenty-eight days; you know that particular beetle died in your mind. And when the beetle finally comes out, what better symbol will you have than the resurrection?
The beetle played the same part in the religion of the Egyptians that spread to other parts of Africa, and subsequently into Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and so on. Thus the beetle became the symbol of resurrection. Of course the religion itself had started then. Just imagine you’ve got to go back 1000 years and see your woman giving birth to a baby. I hope I did not frighten most of you fellows about childbirth; because if you had some experience of seeing a baby being born, you would be less quick to abandon your child. As you are standing there and this baby comes from the woman’s organ. You witness this, while the pelvic region is expanding about four or five inches in diameter for the head to pass through, and you are there. You can’t perceive that you have anything to do with this 100,000 or 5,000 years ago. Witnessing the birth of that baby sets you thinking. You immediately start to transcend your mind, and you also start to attribute this to something beyond. Thus you start to believe. You start to wonder’ why is it here? Where did it come from? And where is it going ? Because you are now experiencing birth! But your experience is coming from a woman. Thus you start to pray and the woman becomes your Goddess, your first deity. She becomes Goddess Nut, the goddess of the sky; and you become God Geb, the god of the earth. You suddenly see the sun in all of this and you realize that when the sun came the light came; and when the sun went, the light went; when the moon came you saw a moon in there and you don’t see any light because the light is not shining on it. So you see there is a God, at least there is the major attribute of God because you realize when that doesn’t happen, the crops and the vegetation don’t come.
You also realize that the sun and the moon make the river rise, and the Africans regarding these factors created the science of astronomy and astrology. Astrology, having nothing to do with your love life. Astronomy is the chart of the scientific data of the movement of the planets and the sun and so forth, to the movement of each other. Astrology is a physical relationship of astronomy, the water rising at the high tide and that is what the ancients spoke about and the division of the two disciplines.
It was the Greeks like Plato, Aristotle and others who came and learned. In those days the students would come and read for their education. There were no books to take home, there were no publishing houses like now. You had only one book and most of the subjects were taught orally. Certain instructions were given toe to toe, shoulder to shoulder, mouth to ear. I will go no further than that. Some of you here may know how that was done and under what conditions. The English adopted it and called it Freemasonry. Sir Albert Churchward’s book, Signs and Symbols of Primordial Man, is a corner stone of Freemasonry. Churchward was a big man in England. Besides being a physician, he was also one of those who made English Freemasonry what it is today. So in another adaptation, the British took twenty-two tablets from Egypt, brought them here and set up what they called “Freemasonry.” Of course, the Americans followed suit.
These Africans had moved along the entire continent. You see, we are treating the Egyptians today as if the Egyptians had a barrier that stopped them from going to other parts of Africa. So we say the Egyptians were of a special race, and they had nothing to do with the other Africans. Can you imagine the Thames River at this side stopping the people from the other side from contact with this side, especially when a man standing over there saw a woman here bathing naked; do you think that that river would stop him? Do you think that the Alps stopped a German from going to see an Italian woman? What makes you think that the little river or a little bit of sand would stop a man from seeing a woman naked over there in Africa? I’m using these common symbols so that you can appreciate what I mean. So it isn’t because when you go to Egypt you will notice that the ancient Egyptians are shown by the artist as the ancient Nubians or Ethiopians or anybody else, except when you are talking about the conquerors. In most of these museums they purposely bring you the statues of the Greeks, of the Romans, of the Persians, the Assyrians, and the Hyksos. They don’t bring you any of the Africans. So when they can’t help it, and they need to bring you one that you call a typical African like Pharaoh Mentuhotep III, it is important to Egypt that they have to show him. What they did was to make his nose flat, so you can’t tell the difference.
Thus once in a while, but when they couldn’t do it, what they did say, was: “Well, Negroes came into Egypt in the Eighteenth Dynasty.” Now it couldn’t be, because the Portuguese hadn’t created Negroes until the seventeenth century, C.E., but how come the Negroes created by the Portuguese have a place they called Negroland, which was in fact the Songhai Empire? In the map you could see where Negroland was, and so how do you get the “Negroes and Negroland” way back in the Eighteenth Dynasty? The Eighteenth Dynasty has such figures as Akhenaton, or Amenhotep IV, and his father, whom the Greeks called Amenhotep III; in the West you would call him Amenophis III. The civilization in Africa did not spread only from along the Nile, but it spread into your own writings, documents, and belief system right here in England.
I now go back to the Etruscans, who later became the Romans; the people of Pyrrhus, who later became the Greeks, because Pyrrhus was what later became Greece. But we don’t have these people until they came from the island of the Mediterranean or the Great Sea. At the time when they left, the Egyptians were the colonizers of other Africans in Egypt. Setting up the first educational system for the people of Pyrrhus, where the borders of Libus (now Libya) and Egypt meet; a little enclave which later became Africa. It is there that the educational system for the Greeks occurred, and from there the Africans moved the system to a place called the city of Elea. It is there that the Greeks would come. This is after they left the Greek peninsula, go to the Italian peninsula where they would meet others to come over to Libus, because they couldn’t come the other way as they were going illegally, sneaking out! Remember, the period of time of which we are speaking, there is no writing in Greece yet. Until Homer there is no writing in Greece. No record you could deal with. Whatever they learned, came from outside, came from Egypt, came from Babylonia. The Babylonian writings are part of this origin of Greece as well as the writings from at least 4100 B.C.E., the First Dynastic period, and this is not when writing started along the Nile. This is the First Dynasty, when Egypt reorganized herself from under two men. The war between the north, headed by King Scorpion, and the south headed by King Narmer, and that will bring us to about 4100 B.C.E. when Narmer started United or Dynastic Egypt.
So the pre-dynastic period was the period of the introduction of religion, of mathematics and science, engineering, law, medicine and so forth. The period of documentation also started then to some extent in the First Dynasty. The period of belief in “One God” really did not start with Akhnaten, that is, when somebody said there must be only “One God.” But the period of absorbing “One God” didn’t start then, because it is that period in 4100 B.C.E., when Narmer, after defeating Scorpion, the leader of the North, decided that the deity of the North, God Amen (which you say at the end of every prayer, you are still praying to the African God Amen), be put together with his own deity of the South, God Ra. But they didn’t notice that he made “One God’ out of the two, God Amen-Ra. He used them in that respect. But the people fell into civil war and there was division again. From that union, God Amen-Ra became God Ptah, and the Goddess of Justice became Maat. Justice, shown as a scale which is the same symbol now used in the United States for justice, except that there is no justice in the United States, because one scale is up, the other is down, and that is not justice; that is “just this”! Justice is when both scales are on the same level, and so the African in America who asks for justice is being foolish. The symbol says you will never get it; you’ll get “just this”!
Before these symbols came the laws on morality and human behavior, the Admonitions to Goddess Maat—Goddess of Justice and Law. There were forty-two Admonitions to Goddess Maat forming the foundation of justice. Then there are the teachings of Amen-em-eope one thousand years before Solomon stole them, some of which he plagiarized word for word, and others he paraphrased, which are now called the Proverbs of Solomon. And yet if we could have stopped there we would have done enough. But it wasn’t the last of it, so to speak. Because we came down with jurisprudence, the basis of law attached to the deity which we are teaching now as jurisprudence. And there is a thing in the African jurisprudence that a harborer should not get away from the penalty of the thief.
During the earliest time of the Kingdom of Ethiopia, King Uri, the first King of Ethiopia had spoken about, “justice isn’t based upon strength, but on morality of the condition of the event.” This now interprets as “the stronger should not mistreat the weaker”; and this is supposed to be something said by Plato, just like the nonsense we hear that “the Greeks had democracy.” The Greeks have never democracy. They never had one in the past and they don’t have it now. When they were supposed to have had democracy in Greece no more than five percent of the people had anything you could call democracy. When you look at that, you find it was from this background going back to the time of Amen-em-eope that theses fundamental laws came from, you could see why those laws spread from North Africa and into Numidia, which is today called Tunisia.
It is at Numidia then that Augustine’s family, continuing the practice of the Manichean religion, carried it into Rome later in the Christian Era. When he left his education in Khart-Haddas or Carthage, it is that same teaching from the Manicheans that Augustine carried into Rome. Ambrose, the greatest Christian scholar in all of Europe, became stunned. But when this twenty-nine-year-old boy arrived and spoke to Ambrose about his education in Carthage, Ambrose said, “Man, you’re heavy.” And Augustine took over. It was the same teachings that Guido the Monk, who went to Spain in the time of the Moors, had taught at the University of Salamanca which they had established. And it was the same Manichean concept that made Augustine write against the Stoics. Augustine wrote the fundamental principle that was to govern modern Christianity in its morality, when he presented them with a book called On Christian Doctrine. He had previously written the Holy City of God. If you want to check Augustine to see if he was an indigenous African read his Confessions. There he will tell you who he was.
When Islam came it was supposed to bring something new, but I ask “what did it bring new?” Because Islam was supposed to have started with an African woman by the name Hagar, according to Islamic literature. Hagar was from Egypt, and Abraham was from Asia—the City of Ur in Chaldea. At the time of Abraham’s birth a group of African people, called Elamites, were ruling. Before Abraham, the sacred river of India has been named after General Ganges, an African who came from Ethiopia. The River Ganges still carries the name of General Ganges. And I notice in India they haven’t given up the symbolic worship of the cow, which represents the Worship of Goddess Het-Heru, Hathor, the “Golden Calf” of the Jews. They also haven’t given up the obelisk that still stays there, which the Hindus copied. Again came an Englishman by the name of Sir Geoffrey Higgins, who published a two-volume work in 1836, and in Volume One in particular, he is speaking about all the deities of the past being “black,” but said: “I can’t accept that they could have come from even Egypt, they must have come from India.” He couldn’t accept it!
Out of that religion of the Nile Valley came the Religion of Ngail in Kenya from the same river base. And as the situation changed you had the Amazulu going for it, because the Zimbabwe river is still there. The people who were originally there were kicked off their land by the British, and equally by the Germans. When the German Dr. Carl Peters came there, the struggle between the Germans and the English for Tanganyika was going strong; both sides killed off the people around that area who spoke the local Rowzi language. So when you talk about Zimbabwe, don’t think about the nation alone. Zimbabwe also means a metropolis of buildings equal in design to the pyramids’ cone shape. When the sunlight coming in strikes the altar, the altar shines because of the sunlight. They had a mixture of gold and silver, the exact thing as what happens when you are down at the rock-hewn Temple of Rameses II, which is on November 22nd, when the sun comes in past the doors. It also happens in February. This shows the commonality of the African culture throughout Africa.
And lastly, just remember that when you see the Ashantis, the Yorubas, and all the other African people, they were not always where they are now. Arab and European slavery made the African migrate from one part of the African world to the other; that is why you can see in Akan culture as written by the African writer Dr. J. B. Danquah, the people with the same hair-cut, and the same beads and jewelry system as Queen Nefertari (the wife of Pharaoh Rameses II in the Nineteenth Dynasty), and Queen Nefertiti (the wife of Pharaoh Akhnaton in the Eighteen Dynasty). It is too much to speak about it, really.
If you had known this when you were much younger, you too over there, you would have wanted a nation; for you too would have realized that if you have a golden toilet in another man’s house (nation) you have got nothing. It is only when you have your own house (nation) that you can demand anything, because you don’t even need to demand anything, you do it. It is only when you have your own nation that you can decide the value and the judgment of beauty. If I was ruling England and you came to run for a beauty contest, you could be disqualified even before you came. You’re talking about racism; why not? This isn’t your country. You cannot run for a beauty contest in a white man’s country. You don’t see any Europeans winning any beauty contest in China, Japan or India; but the funny thing is that they come and win one in Nigeria. As a matter of fact Miss Trinidad was a white girl. Miss Barbados also a white girl, and Miss Jamaica was a white girl, all of them in a Black country. And this is what I’m saying. You can call it racist, but you know I’m telling the truth.
What I hope I have done is to make you understand the necessity for further research; but more than all, the necessity to talk to your child. When your physician tells you that you are pregnant that’s when you start teaching your child. Talk to the child at the time of birth. This is when his and/or her education starts, before he/she gets out of school, and before you and I die.
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